среда, 31 июля 2019 г.

Economic Class

Economic â€Å"Class† † What barriers make it difficult for the poor to change their economic class? † There are several examples that can be given and this paper will outline some of the reasoning. Barriers can be anything from inherited social standings, to birth wealth, or even geographical locations, even to the amount of funding for extracurricular activity, racial and gender domination are also a barrier. There are many different things causing there to be barriers causing it hard for people to change the barrier of economic class.Keeping a good social standard is sometimes difficult to sustain, making it hard to change. Author Gregory Mantsios â€Å"Class in America† in 2003, has many different ideas on the way economic class is. Social standings and consequently life chances are largely determined at birth. Individuals who have gone from rags to riches abound in the mass media, statistics on class mobility show these leaps to be extremely rare (Mants ios711). Most economic success is because of the wealth that these individuals receive at birth. Over 66 percent of the consumer units with incomes of $100,000 or more have inherited assets (Mantsios711).In the stories that are read in most cases there is more wealth due to being born into it than earning it by hard work. Most people do not choose to be put into an economic class; rather it happens on its own. If someone grows up knowing only low income or having very little as a child, they seem to carry that on with them as they get older. It is hard to go from something you’re used to all your life to something so different. Poverty is a very difficult barrier to overcome, no matter where someone is from or where they now live. Author Diana George â€Å"Changing the Faces of Poverty: Nonprofits and the Problem of Representation†. 001 writes, â€Å"You don’t have to leave your own country to find third-world poverty. † (George623). Most groups that are asking for money to help the starving children are usually in a different country. As people see Children, Inc. showing photos of children that make people feel helplessness for. People want to help solve the hunger issues by sending money but sometimes feel uneasy with doing it because we are afraid that the money is not always going for what these people think it is. Habitat for Humanity helps individuals here in the United States to get back on their feet and try to overcome a barrier of no food or places to live.Habitat for Humanity aims to eliminate poverty housing from the globe (George 625). Being in small cities is also sometimes a barrier to overcome because there are not as many jobs or access to jobs. There are run down houses that people without jobs, find it hard to find the funding to do upkeep on them. Poverty condemns millions of people throughout the world to live in deplorable and inhuman conditions. These people are trapped in a cycle of poverty, living in places offering little protection from the rain, wind and cold (George 626). Living in run down houses causes many different illnesses and can cause death as well.It is hard seeing young people living in this situation as well as older people. Finding better housing is something most people strive for. It is just more difficult when not living in a better neighborhood with better housing. Author Peter Singer â€Å"The Singer Solution to World Poverty†, writes, an American household with an income of $50,000 spends around $30,000 annually on necessities, according to the Conference Board, a nonprofit economic research organization, (Singer 879). Therefore, for a household bringing in $50,000 a year, donations to help the world’s poor should be as close as possible to $20,000 (Singer 879).When living in run down areas, and communities with having no means to improve, makes it very hard to change. For some people seeing others doing things they would love to do and know they can not, makes some people feel hopeless and gives them thoughts of never being able to change. Approximately 12 percent of American population-that is, nearly one of every eight people in this country-live below the official poverty line (calculated in 2001 at $9,214 for an individual and $17,960 for a family of four). Among the poor are over 2. million homeless, including nearly 1 million homeless children (Mantsios 701). At last count, nearly 33 million Americans across the nation lived in unrelenting poverty (Mantsios 703). Having extracurricular activities make it hard for poorer people than more wealthy. Some people go to private schools, where they have many options for fun and activities after school. Having options like taking different language classes after, going to sleep away camps, some with sons of ambassadors and children of doctors. Going on family vacations regularly, two or three times a year is more than likely.They know ahead of time that they will most definitely g et into a very good college with or without scholarships with ambitions to be president. As for others, go to a small to medium public school where most options are very little. Going to a YMCA day camp is the most camping experience a lot of poorer people get to experience. They are children of hard working individuals in factory’s and school employees. This is how several of them get to do sports as well. They have ambitions to be presidents as well as school teachers.Racial and gender issues stop people from going farther in life than they would like as well. Racial and gender domination are other forces that hold people down (Mantsios 712). Women experience the effects of sexism whether they are well-paid professional or poorly paid clerks. As women, they face discrimination and male domination, as well as catcalls and stereotyping (Mantsios 712). Similarly, a wealthy black man faces racial oppression, is subjected to racial slurs, and is denied opportunities because of h is color (Mantsios 712). The experience of women and minorities are differentiated along class lines.Although they are subordinate positions vis-a-vis white men, the particular issues that confront women and minorities maybe quite different depending on their position in the class structure (Mansios 712-713). Class -oppressed men, whether they are white or black, have privileges afforded them as men in a sexist society. Similarly, class-oppressed whites, whether they are men or women, benefit from white privilege in a racist society. In today’s society, people would think that this would not be an issue anymore, but it seems to still be problems with it.Oppression is cumulative, and those who are poor, black, and female are often subject to all of the forces of class, race and gender discrimination simultaneously (Mantsios 713). It seems that if you are a black woman that you would be in a lower class than a white female. Being female and of ethnic race you would be considere d in the lower class and that causes many issues for someone to succeed. Being in a society that does goes by classes has caused many issues for several classes to succeed in a position that is very wanted.Americans judge too many people, and it does show that it can be a major barrier for someone to get past. No one likes for others to know their situations, people try to hide things from others so that no one know if they are in the lower class. Trying to fit in is something that most Americans allow themselves to do. Everyone wants to be considered in the same category of class. Why do people judge so much and why do they say and do hurtful things to people that are in a lower class than themselves? It is just how the human race is and more than likely will always be.It has been this way for many years and will continue to do so. Some people are raised in many different levels of human nature, and it grows with each individual as they become adults, but looking down on someone an d belittling them, all because they are not as rich as them, or have as many material things as they do needs to come to a stop. That causes too many people to stop trying to overcome obstacles in their way to make a better life for themselves and their families. Getting out of a rut is a hard thing to accomplish. This is a major barrier to overcome. Works Cited George, Diana. Changing the Face of Poverty: Nonprofits and the Problem of Representation. † 2001. The Norton Field Guide to Writing with Readings. Ed. Richard Bullock and Maureen Daly Goggin. 2nd ed. New York: Norton, 2010. 622-33. Print. Mantsios, Gregory. â€Å"Class in America-2003. † 2004. The Norton Field Guide to Writing with Readings. Ed. Richard Bullock and Maureen Daly Goggin. 2nd ed. New York: Norton, 2010. 697-717. Print. Singer, Peter. â€Å"The Singer Solution to World Poverty. † 2009. The Norton Field Guide to Writing with Readings. Ed. Richard Bullock and Maureen Daly Goggin. 2nd ed. New Y ork: Norton, 2010. 873-80. Print.

вторник, 30 июля 2019 г.

An ecosystem as a community Essay

Introduction An ecosystem is a community of living organisms (plants, animals and microbes) in conjunction with the nonliving components of their environment (things like air, water and mineral soil), interacting as a system.[2] These biotic and abiotic components are regarded as linked together through nutrient cycles and energy flows.[3] As ecosystems are defined by the network of interactions among organisms, and between organisms and their environment,[4] they can be of any size but usually encompass specific, limited spaces[5] (although some scientists say that the entire planet is an ecosystem).[6] Energy, water, nitrogen and soil minerals are other essential abiotic components of an ecosystem. The energy that flows through ecosystems is obtained primarily from the sun. It generally enters the system through photosynthesis, a process that also captures carbonfrom the atmosphere. By feeding on plants and on one another, animals play an important role in the movement of matter and energy through the system. They also influence the quantity of plant and microbial biomass present. By breaking down dead organic matter,decomposers release carbon back to the atmosphere and facilitate nutrient cycling by converting nutrients stored in dead biomass back to a form that can be readily used by plants and other microbes.[7] Ecosystems are controlled both by external and internal factors. External factors such as climate, the parent material which forms the soil and topography, control the overall structure of an ecosystem and the way things work within it, but are not themselves influenced by the ecosystem.[8] Other external factors include time and potential biota. Ecosystems are dynamic entities—invariably, they are subject to periodic disturbances and are in the process of recovering from some past disturbance.[9] Ecosystems in similar environments that are located in different parts of the world can have very different characteristics simply because they contain different species.[8] Theintroduction of non-native species can cause substantial shifts in ecosystem function. Internal factors not only control ecosystem processes but are also controlled by them and are often subject to feedback loops.[8] While the resource inputs are generally controlled by external processes like climate and parent material, the  availability of these resources within the ecosystem is controlled by internal factors like decomposition, root competition or shading.[8] Other internal factors include disturbance, succession and the types of species present. Although humans exist and operate within ecosystems, their cumulative effects are large enough to influence external factors like climate.[8] Biodiversity affects ecosystem function, as do the processes of disturbance and succession. Ecosystems provide a variety of goods and services upon which people depend; the principles of ecosystem management suggest that rather than managing individual species,natural resources should be managed at the level of the ecosystem itself. Classifying ecosystems into ecologically homogeneous units is an important step towards effective ecosystem management, but there is no single, agreed-upon way to do this. Classification Classifying ecosystems into ecologically homogeneous units is an important step towards effective ecosystem management.[42] A variety of systems exist, based on vegetation cover, remote sensing, and bioclimatic classification systems.[42] American geographer Robert Bailey defines a hierarchy of ecosystem units ranging from microecosystems (individual homogeneous sites, on the order of 10 square kilometres (4 sq mi) in area), through mesoecosystems (landscape mosaics, on the order of 1,000 square kilometres (400 sq mi)) to macroecosystems (ecoregions, on the order of 100,000 square kilometres (40,000 sq mi)).[43] Bailey outlined five different methods for identifying ecosystems: gestalt (â€Å"a whole that is not derived through considerable of its parts†), in which regions are recognized and boundaries drawn intuitively; a map overlay system where different layers like geology, landforms and soil types are overlain to identify ecosystems; multivariate clustering of site attrib utes; digital image processing of remotely sensed data grouping areas based on their appearance or other spectral properties; or by a â€Å"controlling factors method† where a subset of factors (like soils, climate, vegetation physiognomy or the distribution of plant or animal species) are selected from a large array of possible ones are used to delineate ecosystems.[44] In contrast with  Bailey’s methodology, Puerto Rico ecologist Ariel Lugo and coauthors identified ten characteristics of an effective classification system: that it be based on georeferenced, quantitative data; that it should minimize subjectivity and explicitly identify criteria and assumptions; that it should be structured around the factors that drive ecosystem processes; that it should reflect the hierarchical nature of ecosystems; that it should be flexible enough to conform to the various scales at which ecosystem management operates; that it should be tied to reliable measures of climate so that it can â€Å"anticipat[e] global climate change; that it be applicable worldwide; that it should be validated against independent data; that it take into account the sometimes complex relationship between climate, vegetation and ecosystem functioning; and that it should be able to adapt and improve as new data become available†.[42] Types Aquatic ecosystem An aquatic ecosystem is an ecosystem in a body of water. Communities of organisms that are dependent on each other and on their environment live in aquatic ecosystems. The two main types of aquatic ecosystems are marine ecosystems andfreshwater ecosystems.[1] Marine ecosystems: cover approximately 71% of the Earth’s surface and contain approximately 97% of the planet’s water. They generate 32% of the world’s net primary production.[1] They are distinguished from freshwater ecosystems by the presence of dissolved compounds, especially salts, in the water. Approximately 85% of the dissolved materials in seawater are sodium and chlorine. Seawater has an average salinity of 35 parts per thousand (ppt) of water. Actual salinity varies among different marine ecosystems.[2] Large marine ecosystems: (LMEs) are regions of the world’s oceans, encompassing coastal areas from river basins and estuaries to the seaward boundaries of continental shelves and the outer margins of the major ocean current systems. They are relatively large regions on the order of 200,000 km ² or greater, characterized by distinct bathymetry, hydrography, productivity, and trophically dependent populations. The system of LMEs has been developed by the US National Oceanic and Atmospheric  Administration (NOAA) to identify areas of the oceans for conservation purposes. The objective is to use the LME concept as a tool for enabling ecosystem-based management to provide a collaborative approach to management of resources within ecologically-bounded transnational areas. This will be done in an international context and consistent with customary international law as reflected in 1982 UN Convention on the Law of the Sea.[1] LME-based conservation is based on recognition that the world’s coastal ocean waters are degraded by unsustainable fishing practices, habitat degradation, eutrophication, toxic pollution, aerosol contamination, and emerging diseases, and that positive actions to mitigate these threats require coordinated actions by governments and civil society to recover depleted fish populations, restore degraded habitats and reduce coastal pollution. Although the LMEs cover only the continental margins and not the deep oceans and oceanic islands, the 64 LMEs produce 95% of the world’s annual marine fishery biomassyields. Most of the global ocean pollution, overexploitation, and coastal habitat alteration occur within their waters. NOAA has conducted studies of principal driving forces affecting changes in biomass yields for 33 of t he 64 LMEs, which have been peer-reviewed and published in ten volumes.[2] Freshwater ecosystems: are a subset of Earth’s aquatic ecosystems. They include lakes and ponds, rivers, streams and springs, and wetlands. They can be contrasted with marine ecosystems, which have a larger salt content. Freshwater habitats can be classified by different factors, including temperature, light penetration, and vegetation. Freshwater ecosystems can be divided into lentic ecosystems (still water) and lotic ecosystems (flowing water). Limnology (and its branch freshwater biology) is a study about freshwater ecosystems. It is a part of hydrobiology. Original efforts to understand and monitor freshwater ecosystems were spurred on by threats to human health (ex. Cholera outbreaks due to sewage contamination). Early monitoring focussed on chemical indicators, then bacteria, and finally algae, fungi and protozoa. A new type of monitoring involves differing groups of organisms (macroinvertebrates, macrophytes and fish) and the stream conditions associated with them. Current biomonitering techniques focus mainly on community structure or biochemical oxygen demand. Responses  are measured by behavioural changes, altered rates of growth, reproduction or mortality. Macroinvertebrates are most often used in these models because of well known taxonomy, ease of collection, sensitivity to a range of stressors, and their overall value to the ecosystem. Most of these measurements are difficult to extrapolate on a large scale however. The use of reference sites is common when assessing what a healthy freshwater ecosystem should â€Å"look like†. Reference sites are easier to reconstruct in standing water than moving water. Preserved indicators such as diatom valves, macrophyte pollen, insect chitin and fish scales can be used to establish a reference ecosystem representative of a time before lar ge scale human disturbance. Common chemical stresses on freshwater ecosystem health include acidification, eutrophication and copper and pesticide contamination. Lake ecosystems :The ecosystem of a lake includes biotic (living) plants, animals and micro-organisms, as well as abiotic (nonliving) physical and chemical interactions.[1] Lake ecosystems are a prime examples of lentic ecosystems. Lentic refers to standing or relatively still water, from the Latin lentus, which means sluggish. Lentic waters range from ponds to lakes to wetlands, and much of this article applies to lentic ecosystems in general. Lentic ecosystems can be compared withlotic ecosystems, which involve flowing terrestrial waters such as rivers and streams. Together, these two fields form the more general study area of freshwater or aquatic ecology. Lentic systems are diverse, ranging from a small, temporary rainwater pool a few inches deep to Lake Baikal, which has a maximum depth of 1740 m.[2] The general distinction between pools/ponds and lakes is vague, but Brown[1] states that ponds and pools have their entire bottom surfaces exposed to light, while lakes do not. In addition, some lakes become seasonally stratified (discussed in more detail below.) Ponds and pools have two regions: the pelagic open water zone, and the benthic zone, which comprises the bottom and shore regions. Since lakes have deep bottom regions not exposed to light, these systems have an additional zone, the profundal.[3] These three areas can have very different abiotic conditions and, hence, host species that are specifically adapted to live there.[1] River ecosystem The ecosystem of a river is the river viewed as a system operating in its natural environment, and includes biotic (living) interactions amongst plants, animals and micro-organisms, as well as abiotic (nonliving) physical and chemical interactions.[1][2] River ecosystems are prime examples of lotic ecosystems. Lotic refers to flowing water, from the Latin lotus, washed. Lotic waters range from springs only a few centimeters wide to major rivers kilometers in width.[3] Much of this article applies to lotic ecosystems in general, including related lotic systems such as streams and springs. Lotic ecosystems can be contrasted with lentic ecosystems, which involve relatively still terrestrial waters such as lakes and ponds. Together, these two fields form the more general study area of freshwater or aquatic ecology. The following unifying characteristics make the ecology of running waters unique from that of other aquatic habitats.[4] Flow is unidirectional. There is a state of continuous physical change. There is a high degree of spatial and temporal heterogeneity at all scales (microhabitats). Variability between lotic systems is quite high.  The biota is specialized to live with flow conditions. Wetland ECOSYSTEM A wetland is a land area that is saturated with water, either permanently or seasonally, such that it takes on the characteristics of a distinct ecosystem.[2] Primarily, the factor that distinguishes wetlands from other land forms or water bodies is the characteristic vegetationthat is adapted to its unique soil conditions. Wetlands consist primarily of hydric soil, which supports aquatic plants.[3][4] The water found in wetlands can be saltwater, freshwater, or brackish.[4] Main wetland types include swamps, marshes, bogs and fens.[5]Sub-types include mangrove, carr, pocosin, and varzea. Wetlands play a number of roles in the environment, principally water purification, flood control, and shoreline stability. Wetlands are also considered the most biologically diverse of all ecosystems, serving as home to a wide range of plant and  animal life.[6] Wetlands occur naturally on every continent except Antarctica.[7] They can also be constructed artificially as a water management tool, which may play a role in the developing field of water-sensitive urban design. The largest wetlands in the world include the Amazon River basin and the West Siberian Plain.[8] Another large wetland is the Pantanal, which straddles Brazil, Bolivia, and Paraguay in South America.[9] The UN Millennium Ecosystem Assessment determined that environmental degradation is more prominent within wetland systems than any other ecosystem on Earth. International conservation efforts are being used in conjunction with the development of rapid assessment tools to inform people about wetland issues. Terrestrial ecosystem A terrestrial ecosystem is an ecosystem found only on landforms. Six primary terrestrial ecosystems exist: tundra, taiga, temperate deciduous forest, tropical rain forest,grassland and desert.[1] A community of organisms and their environment that occurs on the land masses of continents and islands. Terrestrial ecosystems are distinguished from aquatic ecosystems by the lower availability of water and the consequent importance of water as a limiting factor. Terrestrial ecosystems are characterized by greater temperature fluctuations on both a diurnal and seasonal basis than occur in aquatic ecosystems in similar climates. The availability of light is greater in terrestrial ecosystems than in aquatic ecosystems because the atmosphere is more transparent in land than in water. Gases are more available in terrestrial ecosystems than in aquatic ecosystems. Those gases include carbon dioxide that serves as a substrate for photosynthesis, oxygen that serves as a substrate in aerobic respiration, and nitrogen that serves as a substrate for nitrogen fixation. Terrestrial environments are segmented into a subterranean portion from which most water and ions are obtained, and an atmospheric portion from which gases are obtained and where the physical energy of light is transformed into the organic energy of carbon-carbon bonds through the process of photosynthesis. Terrestrial ecosystems occupy 55,660,000 mi2 (144,150,000 km2), or 28.2%, of Earth’s surface. Although they are comparatively recent in the history of life (the first terrestrial organisms appeared in the Silurian Period, about 425 million years ago) and  occupy a much smaller portion of Earth’s surface than marine ecosystems, terrestrial ecosystems have been a major site of adaptive radiation of both plants and animals. Major plant taxa in terrestrial ecosystems are members of the division Magnoliophyta (flowering plants), of which there are about 275,000 species, and the division Pinophyta (conifers), of which there are about 500 species. Members of the division Bryophyta (mosses and liverworts), of which there are about 24,000 species, are also important in some terrestrial ecosystems. Major animal taxa in terrestrial ecosystems include the classes Insecta (insects) with about 900,000 species, Aves (birds) with 8500 species, and Mammalia (mammals) with approximately 4100 species. Organisms in terrestrial ecosystems have adaptations that allow them to obtain water when the entire body is no longer bathed in that fluid, means of transporting the water from limited sites of acquisition to the rest of the body, and means of preventing the evaporation of water from body surfaces. They also have traits that provide body support in the atmosphere, a much less buoyant medium than water, and other traits t hat render them capable of withstanding the extremes of temperature, wind, and humidity that characterize terrestrial ecosystems. Finally, the organisms in terrestrial ecosystems have evolved many methods of transporting gametes in environments where fluid flow is much less effective as a transport medium. The organisms in terrestrial ecosystems are integrated into a functional unit by specific, dynamic relationships due to the coupled processes of energy and chemical flow. Those relationships can be summarized by schematic diagrams of trophic webs, which place organisms according to their feeding relationships. The base of the food web is occupied by green plants, which are the only organisms capable of utilizing the energy of the Sun and inorganic nutrients obtained from the soil to produce organic molecules. Terrestrial food webs can be broken into two segments based on the status of the plant material that enters them. Grazing food webs are associated with the consumption of living plant material by herbivores. Detritus food webs are associated with the consumption of dead plant material by detritivores. Th e relative importance of those two types of food webs varies considerably in different types of terrestrial ecosystems. Grazing food webs are more important in grasslands, where over half of net primary productivity may be consumed by herbivores. Detritus food webs are more important in forests, where less  than 5% of net primary productivity may be consumed by herbivores. There is one type of extensive terrestrial ecosystem due solely to human activities and eight types that are natural ecosystems. Those natural ecosystems reflect the variation of precipitation and temperature over Earth’s surface. The smallest land areas are occupied by tundra and temperate grassland ecosystems, and the largest land area is occupied by tropical forest. The most productive ecosystems are temperate and tropical forests, and the least productive are deserts and tundras. Cultivated lands, which together with grasslands and savannas utilized for grazing are referred to as agroecosystems, are of intermediate extent and productivity. Because of both their areal extent and their high average productivity, tropical forests are the most productive of all terrestrial ecosystems, contributing 45% of total estimated net primary productivity on land. CAUSES OF DESTRUCTION The degradation of ecosystems is an environmental problem that diminishes the capacity of species to survive. This degradation occurs in different ways and is manifested in a reduction in the richness of the ecosystems as well as their biological diversity, and in the goods and services they can offer, thereby affecting indigenous and/or migratory species. The degradation of ecosystems due to overexploitation of their resources, though serving a short-term economic goal, has had direct negative effects on social welfare in the medium and long terms. As long as the ecosystem is not degraded, it represents a source of wealth for society, hence the importance of keeping it in good condition. One of the main causes that contributes to the degradation of ecosystems is the deforestation due to the advance of the agriculture frontier and inappropriate forest exploitation. More lands are deforested for commercial agriculture and live-stock rearing, and due to overexploitation of forest for wood and energy. In Nicaragua deforestation rates reach over 150,000 hectares per year and in Costa Rica over 18,500 hectares per year. At a lower scale, another problem is the uncontrolled fires used to prepare land for agricultural activities or to remove forest for the development of stock rearing areas. This practice eliminates the organic covering of the land, making it more susceptible to erosion by both  wind and water. In addition, the fires cause health problems and detract from the aesthetic value of the landscape. Accidental or natural fires are another case in point. They affect areas of natural forest. In the Upala and Los Chiles cantons, in Costa Rica, some 10,000 hectares were burned between 1998 and 1999. This problem is even more serious in the Nicaraguan territory of the basin. Equipment is lacking and communities need to be organized to control t hese fires as one of the main barriers to the burning of large areas. The construction of roads without proper drainage measures or in territories subject to penetration and settlement are high-stress factors for ecosystems, especially those which are highly fragile as a result of their weather conditions and the nature of their soil and water. Mining and the extraction of construction materials without taking measures to cushion the impact cause drastic changes in the natural landscape while degrading its valuable ecosystems. Wetlands are very fragile ecosystems that are being severely affected, causing a reduction in the number and diversity of the species of terrestrial flora, birds, reptiles, mammals, fish, and crustaceans. This problem results from excessive exploitation of wildlife species either to feed the population, to trade their furs, or to trade live species, and from sedimentation, which causes changes in water quality, thereby significantly affecting the reproduction of aquatic species that live and/or reproduce in the wetlands. The SJRB wetlands are very valuable ecosystems, which regulate the hydrological cycle and provide food and shelter for hundreds of species, including large quantities of migratory birds. One major cause of the deterioration of this ecosystem is the draining of wide areas of wetlands to give access to agricultural zones or human settlements. Aerial photographs of the Caà ±o Negro sector show how the pools of water have diminished over time, due in part to the drainage of wetlands for agricultural purposes and to the sedimentation occurring in recent years in the basin. Owing to the deterioration of these areas and the pressure of the neighboring communities on the use of the natural resources of the wetlands, it is necessary to draw up management plans to outline the socioeconomic characteristics of users and guidelines for usage, since people are highly dependent on these resources for their survival. A large portion of the ecological problems of the wetlands is due to ignorance of their benefits. The use of inappropriate fishing techniques endangers the  existence of certain species, altering the food chain of aquatic fauna and consequently deteriorating the aquatic ecosystems. This is the case of the bull shark that is now hard to find in Lake Nicaragua or in the San Juan River. In some cases, the introduction of exotic species endangers the existence of indigenous species with a high cultural value. Such is the case of the guapote, whose numbers are being reduced by the introduction of tilapias. The deterioration of ecosystems is exacerbated by the lack of an institutional presence in the territory, be it for technical or economic reasons, or a combination of both. As a result, laws on the regulation and control of natural resource use are not enforced. The participation of civil society in controlling the use and exploitation of natural resources is limited and, in many cases, very timid or markedly apathetic. One aspect that has not been evaluated in the degradation of the ecosystems is the incidence of different phenomena on these systems. The geographic location of the SJRB and the various geographic accidents encountered there render it susceptible to the impact of various events of this kind. In the SJRB there are a number of active volcanoes, which spew gas and ash causing damage to the plant life, the soil, polluting water bodies, and causing severe damage to entire populations. These volcanoes include the Masaya, the Maderas, and the Irazà º. Another natural phenomenon in the SJRB is landslides which, though located in specific areas, cause damage to the ecosystems, the soil, pollute water bodies, damage infrastructure and entire settlements. The Maderas volcano on the island Ometepe is a case in point. Similarly, during the last century, the SJRB has suffered the destructive effects of at least three hurricanes which, with their heavy rainfall, cause flooding damaging ecosystems, eroding soil, diverting river courses, causing severe damage to infrastructure and entire populations, resulting in the loss of human lives. Other natural phenomena that have caused damage to the ecosystems of the SJRB are the droughts that have occurred as a result of the El Nià ±o and seismic activity, which have changed river courses, particularly in the case of the Tipitapa River that provided a permanent connection between the Managua and Nicaragua lakes. As a result of an earthquake during the last century, the riverbed rose in a certain sector cutting off the existing connection between the two lakes. The degradation of the ecosystems makes the economic and social infrastructure of the SJRB more vulnerable and  increases the potential impact on the population. This vulnerability is reflected in shorter periods between the occurrence of floods or droughts and the soil becomes more unstable. Possible solutions to the problem of deterioration of the ecosystems include developing formal and informal environmental education programs to make farmers more aware of their actions; increasing enforcement of the existing l egislation; promoting proper natural resource management; and promoting the organization of grassroots groups to control burning from the outset. To prevent or mitigate the damage caused by extreme conditions, such as flooding and droughts and other effects of natural phenomena, it is necessary to set up and early warning system about possible swelling of water bodies and to monitor hydrometeorological behavior. It is also necessary to set up a seismographic network to monitor the behavior of volcanoes and tectonic faults. Similarly, social organization is necessary to design and test emergency plans for natural phenomena, to reduce the damage they cause. Institutions responsible for the control and regulation of natural resource use must be strengthened, both technically and economically, and be given the means for their mobilization. This would enable them to have a real presence in the territory. It is also necessary to create mechanisms for enforcing the current legislation. Conservation practices to save ecosystem Environmental protection is a practice of protecting the natural environment on individual, organizational or governmental levels, for the benefit of both the natural environment and humans. Due to the pressures of population and technology, the biophysical environment is being degraded, sometimes permanently. This has been recognized, and governments have begun placing restraints on activities that cause environmental degradation. Since the 1960s, activity of environmental movements has created awareness of the various environmental issues. There is no agreement on the extent of the environmental impact of human activity, and protection measures are occasionally criticized. Academic institutions now offer courses, such as environmental studies, environmental management and environmental engineering, that teach the history and methods of environment protection. Protection of the environment is needed due to various human  activities. Waste production, air pollution, and loss of biodiversity (resulting from the introduction of invasive species and species extinction) are some of the issues related to environmental protection. Environmental protection is influenced by three interwoven factors: environmental legislation, ethics and education. Each of these factors plays its part in influencing national-level environmental decisions and personal-level environmental values and behaviors. For environmental protection to become a reality, it is important for societies to develop each of these areas that, together, will inform and drive environmental decisions.[1] How to Save Our Ecosystem Instructions Educate yourself about your local environment. Starting small and learning about the plants and animals in your immediate surroundings will give you an appreciation for the enormous variety of ecosystems on our earth. It will also help you understand how you fit into your natural surroundings and get you thinking about the effects of your actions. When you flush the toilet, where does your water go? When you wash the car and soap runs off into the street, what does that soap go on to affect? What animals do you disturb by replacing native vegetation with nonnative landscaping? Asking yourself these questions is a one of the first steps to reducing your carbon footprint. 2  Find an activist group in your area with a cause you support. It can be a local issue, such as preserving open space in your community, or a more widespread issue, like passing legislation that requires cars to produce fewer greenhouse gas emissions. Being part of a group allows you to meet like-minded people and work toward a common environmental goal. Sponsored Links Homeworks for free We answer 1000 questions daily Free and fast brainly.in 3Consider the implications of your consumerism. Everything you buy has a product life cycle, or a history of how it was produced using what materials. When possible, reduce the impact of your purchase by buying products that are made locally and/or are manufactured from recycled materials. 4  Eat local, organic food. Local food travels less distance from farm to your table, which means that it has a lower carbon footprint, is fresher, and supports your community’s farmers. Organic food is produced without the use of chemical pesticides or fertilizers, and without genetically modified crops. Chemical pesticides and fertilizers can get into the natural environment and harm existing plants and animals; genetically modified crops reduce biodiversity by encouraging a monoculture farm. 5  Travel wisely to decrease your carbon footprint. Use alternative methods of transportation whenever feasible—walk to the store, ride your bike to work, take public transportation downtown. When you do drive, accelerate and decelerate gradually to conserve gas. Also, make sure that your tires are properly inflated and that the emissions system on your vehicle is well maintained.

понедельник, 29 июля 2019 г.

Managing Markering Communication Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words

Managing Markering Communication - Essay Example Integrated Marketing Communications, or IMC, basically refers to the process of combining all the tools used in advertising so that they can function together. Promotion, one of the marketing mix’s 4 Ps, has its own combination of communication elements. All of these elements operate better if they are combined together than when they are used in isolation. Their functions are improved when integration incorporates more than the essential communication tools. There are other kinds of integration like vertical and horizontal integration. Horizontal Integration can happen across business functions as well as the marketing mix. For example, communications production, distribution, and finance should operate simultaneously when the telecom service providers seek to channel messages to their consumers. Different divisions like direct mail, sales, and advertising can operate concurrently via data integration. This calls for a marketing information structure which gathers and shares the pertinent information across different corporate divisions. Vertical Integration basically denotes that communications and marketing purposes have to be formed in such a way that they support the higher level commercial goals and objectives. Internal Integration, on the other hand, calls for all the staff to be kept informed and inspired about new advancements. In a telecom service provider, these could mean new corporate identities, new advertisements, new strategic partners or even new service standards.... Internal Integration, on the other hand, calls for all the staff to be kept informed and inspired about new advancements. In a telecom service provider, these could mean new corporate identities, new advertisements, new strategic partners or even new service standards (Schultz and Schultz, 2003). External integration calls for external allies like PR agencies and advertising to work collaboratively in order to avail an integrated and cohesive message. The main principles of integrated marketing communications comprise: Consistency: A major topic in integrated marketing is consistency. It basically speaks to delivering an identical message about a brand or service across all elements of the media. This is a function that can assist a telecom service provider to create a brand identity that is both effective as well as impressive. For example, a corporation with a high-quality brand has to ensure that its message to different media outlets maintain the same timbre of message that conve ys the promise of superb quality (Pelsmacker, Geuens and Bergh, 2004). If the business invests in an effective TV advertisement but cuts costs in its advertisements in print media, the clients will get a mixed message about the service. Distribution Considerations: Integrated marketing is also about the supply-chain outcomes of a service provider. This basically entails working with contractors that have good reputations that will raise the profile of the telecom service provider. It also means utilising information gathered during marketing to enhance services that meet customer expectations while also improving the general experience of the consumer. Interactive: Interactive marketing encourages and supports a two-way communication process with consumers. This

воскресенье, 28 июля 2019 г.

Marketing Strategy of Apple Dissertation Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 15000 words

Marketing Strategy of Apple - Dissertation Example Over the last decade, Apple redefined the music and cellphone business, and the entertainment and media world by introducing IPod, IPhone and IPad. With the motivation to evaluate the marketing strategy of Apple, which enabled it to bring about a turnaround, this research is being conducted. Three objectives were set in Chapter I and after extensive literature review in Chapter II, questionnaire was designed to collect primary data from students. All three objectives have been achieved. The study finds that in the high technology products it has become critical to redefine businesses and reshape markets, thereby aligning with the changing demands of the firm’s business environment. To gain competitive advantage new pricing models, innovative value proposition, or customer-driven supply networks or finding new means of â€Å"touching† the customers has become essential. Brand management, customer segmentation, product positioning and customer behavior engagement are bein g applied by marketers. In the case of high-tech products product positioning has to be based on definite and tangible characteristics – unique selling point (USP) of the product. ... Apple also adopts bundling pricing and reference pricing strategy. In the international market Apple standardizes product, place and promotion strategies globally, so that all products sold worldwide carry the same design, package, advertising, posters and slogan. Prices vary depending on local taxes applicable. Thus, the marketing strategy of Apple can be said to be effective as they have been able to achieve the expected synergies. Table of Contents Chapter One: Introduction 1.1 Research Topic 1 1.2 Overview of Apple Inc. 2 1.3 Rationale for the study 2 1.4 Research Aims and Objectives 1.5 Research Framework Chapter Two: Literature Review 2.1 Chapter Overview 2.2 Introduction to Marketing Strategy 2.2.1 Principles of Marketing Strategy 2.2.2 Market Segmentation and Target Selection 2.2.3 Brand Image and Brand Equity 2.2.4 Product Positioning 2.2.5 Customer Engagement Behavior 2.3 Marketing Mix 2.3.1 Products 2.3.2 Pricing 2.3.3 Promotions 2.3.3.1 Advertising 2.3.3.2 Personal Sellin g 2.3.3.3 Sales Promotion 2.3.3.4 Public Relations 2.3.3.5 Direct Marketing 2.3.4 Place 2.3.4.1 Types of Intermediary 2.3.4.2 The Internet 2.4 International Marketing Strategy 2.4.1 Porter’s Generic Strategy in Digital Age 2.4.2 Effectiveness of the marketing strategy 2.5 Overview of the Computer Industry 2.6 Overview of Apple Inc Chapter Three: Methodology 3.1 Chapter Overview 3.2 Research Phenomenon under study 3.3 Research Philosophy 3.4 Research Strategy 3.5 Data Collection 3.6 Sampling 3.7 Data Analysis 3.8 Ethical concerns 3.9 Reliability and Validity 3.10 Limitations Chapter Four: Findings and Discussion 4.1 Chapter Overview 4.2 Findings from Web

суббота, 27 июля 2019 г.

Ogilvy and Mather Worldwide Case Study Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Ogilvy and Mather Worldwide - Case Study Example The present paper is regarding the strategy and framework that can be considered to provide the best stewardship of Ogilvy brand. 1) Accurate human resource positioning - Expertise is necessary in order to achieve the goal of best stewardship. The organization cannot afford anyone to work anywhere without giving any result. Human resource is the key to success of any organization. Motivating the employees through incentives, promotions and other benefits will encourage them to perform better. As the organization is a multinational company, networking in form of communication should be enabled and each and every office should be interlinked not separating any of the regional offices from the offices situated outside the country. Moreover, all the offices and its employees should be assigned specific roles and responsibilities so as to carry out work smoothly. Organizational restructure is necessary to stimulate growth, successive management, to deal with internal problems and due to changing environment (Busn 6520, Class Notes) 2) Coordination among Board of Directors- It is necessary that Board representing the management be reworked as it is evident from the activities of previous year (1993), coordination between the top level executives is the area of concern. There is difference of opinion among different heads of regional offices, local offices and other international offices. Therefore it is recommended that divisional structure of management be carried out as it enhances the cooperation within division and goals are achieved as per the strategy set by CEO, as in the case of Appex. This structure also enhances accountability, budgeting, planning, final target focus and thus preventing any fraudulent activities. The personnel involved in the management of operations in various locations should be vary of their roles and responsibilities so that targets are achieved relentlessly (Strategic Design Lens, Lecture 3) 3) Adapting to the changing environment - Ogilvy and Mather has already experienced the effect of not moving forward with the changing business world and changing mindset of customers resulting in pull offs by its most valued clients like American Express and others. It is suggested to make few changes in organization culture without affecting the historical values of the company. 4) Eliminating political traits in the organization - Politics in an organization is perceived as the dark side and avoiding it can result in impeding effective decisions. Politicization in the organization should be totally eliminated so as to take effective decisions for the organizational development. It is suggested to take all the Board members into confidence or decide with the consensus of the people present during the meeting. Major reshuffling among the top executives along with medium level executives to different departments and locations may help in easing the pressure while taking decisions (Political Lens, Class Notes) 5) Assessing

пятница, 26 июля 2019 г.

Doesn't matter Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Doesn't matter - Essay Example As an accounting manager, only those costs and revenues should be considered that are altered as a result of the decision. Incremental costs and revenues get the prime importance in this decision-making tree. Cost is one of the most crucial factors of accounting when it comes to decision-making. "Cost behavior patterns" refers to the way in which cost behaves in connection with the level of activity. For instance in a project there are fixed costs and variable costs. Some costs increase as the project progresses while others remain fixed. Determining the minimum price quotations is crucial. This will help the company decide whether they should hire new technicians or not. It is not a final key in the decision-making. But this will give the managers the absolute minimum price. Beyond this, they can decide if they want to increase the sale price. The manager also needs to think in terms of overhead absorption. Dividing the total cost of technicians by the number of animals will give a cost per animal. This only gives a rough idea of the real cost of servicing each animal. As an accounting manager, it would be crucial to see what this extra work shift will mean in terms of cost/profit. A comparison of the profit statement when 12,000 test capacity is performed, with the profit statement when the additional shift of 18,000 tests is carried out, would be essential to judge the difference in terms of profit. There are certain factors that need to be included in case a decision is made regarding the additional workload of 18,000 tests. The greater the number of factors the more complicated the decision-making process. The presence of many options available for the company makes it difficult for accounting managers to ration and quantify the benefits across the board. The first factor to consider is whether the decision of taking on more technicians

Confederation and Constitution in the USA Essay

Confederation and Constitution in the USA - Essay Example Among the strengths of the articles was its ability to quell the fear of a strong central government. As he British left the United States, most Americans feared that the creation of a large nation would simply replace the outgoing King George III with yet another heartless tyrant. As such, Americans wanted a ways of insuring themselves from such occurrences. The articles therefore created a weak conference while safeguarding the sovereignty and independence of the states. This way, the states would protect themselves from any dictatorial politicians who would lead the country. The constitution later created a powerful congress and eliminated the sovereignty and independence of the states. While such a move enhanced the rapid development of the country throughout the years, the articles of confederation served a vital role of reassuring Americans of their freedoms until they understood the importance of a united country with a powerful congress. Another equally significant strength of the articles was the fact that they strived to enhance corporation among the states. The articles of confederation called for the creation of â€Å"a firm league of friendship† of the states. Such was integral in their common defense, their mutual and general welfare and the security of their freedoms. The articles demanded that states permit free movements of people and goods throughout the states. Additionally, the articles encouraged the states to trust the judicial system of the states a feature that enhanced the creation of a uniform judicial system in the country.

четверг, 25 июля 2019 г.

MOD 1 SLP ETH501 - Business Ethics Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

MOD 1 SLP ETH501 - Business Ethics - Essay Example The deontological implications of such ethical issues cannot be underplayed. Ethical Problem While working at a local mall, I encountered a rather common unethical practice in the workplace - discrimination coupled with harassment. The store was predominantly a male-dominated work environment in which most employees and supervisors were men. The ethical issue emerged when the store hired a new female employee and the male supervisor started constantly treating her inappropriately. Notably, the presence of the new employee stirred up conflict because the store had not yet conducted sensitivity training. The male supervisor made inappropriate remarks to the new female employee and failed to groom her for promotions as he did with male employees (DesJardins, 2010). Despite her constant complaints to the store manager, the manager did not take any measures to remedy the situation. The ethical issues in this situation are quite diverse: firstly, the male supervisor’s treatment of t he new employee was biased along sexual lines. The store manager’s failure to act was also quite unethical. Making derogatory remarks towards employees on account of their gender is extremely unethical and unlawful. In addition, by denying the female employee necessary resources for promotion, the supervisor also acted unethically (Bhatia, 2004). Deontological Implications Deontological ethics posits that people’s duty to act or not to act centers on the uprightness or evil of the act rather than the consequence of the act. This means that certain actions are inherently proper or evil. Deontological ethics puts emphasis on the concept of whether or not an act is proper or evil, an obligation or duty (Kant, 1993). In the aforementioned ethical issue, the male supervisor acted unethically by failing to perform his work obligation, i.e. providing all employees the same opportunity to earn a promotion. Deontological perceptions of ethics require that people perform their d uties and obligations without being required to do so. Supervisors have a distinct duty to provide a level playing field for all employees in terms of employees’ access to company resources, such as training and grooming. Consequently, the supervisor’s gender-based discrimination contravened conventional view of proper actions in the workplace. Conventional wisdom requires equal treatment of all persons in the workplace; hence the supervisor acted unethically by infringing on the female employee’s right to use company resources (Velasquez, 2001). Regardless of the consequence of the supervisor’s discrimination, his behavior was quite unethical in itself. In addition, the supervisor’s utterance of derogatory remarks towards the female employee epitomized an unethical act. Deontological ethics points of view require people to act uprightly because it is their duty to act right ( Pojman & Fieser, 2011). The supervisor’s actions show disregard f or conventional wisdom that demands that it is the duty of all persons, regardless of their status and positions, to treat others in a humane and upright manner. Moral behavior in the workplace entails impartial treatment of all employees regardless of their race, gender or ethnicity. Conversely, the store manager’s disregard towards the female employee’s complaints is indicative of immorality and unethical behavior (â€Å"Duty-based Ethics†, 2009). The manager could create an impartial and upright

среда, 24 июля 2019 г.

Strategic Reward Key Models and Practices Essay

Strategic Reward Key Models and Practices - Essay Example For example, it is possible to create a plan for performance related pay using different strategies such as the following: (1) merit-based pay plan; (2) job- or skill-based pay plan; (3) competency-based plan; and/or (3) job-evaluation-based pay (Heneman and Werner, 2005, p. 45; Baldwin, 2003, p. 45, 70). After examining the potential impact of introducing a performance related pay in a German public service, Shmidt, Trittel and Muller (2011) found out that the use of different types of performance related pay schemes can lead to different effects in terms of public sector employees’ work motivation and performance and that a highly selective performance related pay will never work in government offices. It simply means that depending on the type of performance-based appraisal used by each government office, there will always be the risk wherein the public sector employees would perceive the type of assessment and evaluation process used within the government office to be inef fective, inconsistent, and unfair to some government employees (Shmidt, Trittel and Muller, 2011; Rayson, 2013). Another possible reason behind the reluctance of the public sector employees in integrating performance related pay is the fact that most of the non-performing government employees would fear that their superiors would be closely monitoring their overall work performance. Because of the on-going tight government budget, Weiner (2013) reported that the public sector employees may no longer have the opportunity to enjoy so much of work-related flexibility options. Since there is a need for the government to cut down their unnecessary fixed operating costs, some of the underperforming public sector employees may think that they can be one of the candidates in case... It is the duty and responsibility of the public HR managers to design and implement the performance related pay effectively within the UK government offices. As a common knowledge, the public sector employees will be affected by the new pay and reward scheme. Therefore, the reservations made by the public sector employees should be considered legitimate. The use of performance related pay is a good form of pay and reward strategy particularly in terms of increasing the quality service provided by the public sector employees. For this reason, the public HR managers should exert more effort to effectively address all reservations made by the public sector employees. It is also necessary to create a S.M.A.R.T performance-based criteria that could guide the public sector employees on what they are expected to do. In the process of removing the reservations of each public sector employee, the HR professionals can easily win the support of all affected individuals.

вторник, 23 июля 2019 г.

Product Liability and Intentional Tort Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Product Liability and Intentional Tort - Essay Example The rationale for placing high liability on the sellers and manufacturers regardless of the nature of defect is that such parties are better placed to bear the cost implications of compensation. In this case, it is argued that product manufacturers and sellers can cushion themselves against losses resulting from product defects by increasing the product’s prices. Due to lack of a federal law governing product liability, the precedence for liability torts is derived from various state laws and court rulings on the general tort law. The admissibility of Chase’s case for product liability can be established by examining the threshold requirements for product liability cases and relevant court rulings. According to the Indiana Law Review, the following mandatory threshold requirements exist for a case to qualify for product liability; a product’s user/claimant who is subject to injury by the product, product’s manufacturer or seller/defendant, faulty product t hat is considered as unreasonably dangerous to the consumer or consumer’s property, a product reaching the consumer without alteration to its initial state and physical harm resulting from the product (Buttrick, Alberts and Thornburg, 2011:1378). Irrespective of the relevant product liability theories involved in the case, Chase’s case should meet the above criteria to qualify for admissibility (Buttrick, Alberts and Thornburg, 2011:1378). An examination of the theories upon which the product liability law is based provides insight to this hypothetical scenario. Under the theory of negligence, the manufacturer of the paper shredding machine is not liable for Chase’s injuries since there was no negligence on the manufacturer’s part or failure to remove foreseeable risk of injury to the machine’s user (Buttrick, Alberts and Thornburg, 2011:1382). In this case, the injuries incurred were as a result of negligence by the user arising from failure to re ad and adhere to the manufacturer’s instructions. However, the machine’s manufacturer can be held liable for Chase’s injury on the basis of the duty to warn the user against a foreseeable risk of injury by the machine (Buttrick, Alberts and Thornburg, 2011:1383). The manufacturer’s liability to provide warning to the user and whether the operation instructions were sufficient to protect Chase from injuries can be established by examining other factors like the value of the warning. In this case, the manufacturer of the paper shredding machine had the duty to provide adequate warning regarding the dangers of personal harm incase the machine is operated without lubricating oil. Under negligence rule, Chase should prove that the injuries sustained occurred despite having observed the necessary duty of care (Fischer, 2009:7). Product liability requires the injured party; Chase to demonstrate the harm-causation relationship and whether there was any breach of duty if there was any negligence by the manufacturer (Fischer, 2009:7). Though there was concrete harm on the part of Chase and the nature of causation passes the necessary â€Å"but-for† test which seeks to establish whether the harm would have otherwise occurred, the burden of proof for the manufacturer’s failure to observe the necessary duty of care lies with Chase. In this case, it is less likely for Chase to be compensated by the paper shreddi

понедельник, 22 июля 2019 г.

The American Dream Essay Example for Free

The American Dream Essay Everyone has there own dream. Many just see it as just being happy. To others it may be becoming rich and having the perfect family. In life many people wonder how far would you go for you would go to obtain the american dream. How far would you go? The American Dream to me is having equal opportunity, to live without any worries, and doing the things in life that you love the most. Most would do all they can in power to make sure they come close to the American Dream. According to John Fitzgerald Kennedy â€Å" All of us do not have equal talents . But all of us should have an equal opportunity to develop our talents. † Kennedy was basically saying that we might not all have been create equally with the same gifts and talents. Are all of us created equally? Lots of the time we don’t treat each other as if we are all equal. Americans put each other in ranks call social classes. If we had a life without social classes everyone would be the same thing. No one would have to worry about having more power over one another. In the Declaration it quotes â€Å" All mean are created equal† (Jefferson 98) That means that every person is entitled to do anything that the most wealthy man does. For an example a restaurant can’t refuse to serve someone just because of their religion. In America the Declaration makes us equal. No one can take away your rights. We create each others equality. In the text â€Å"I Will Fight No More Forever† the native americans were driven out of their own land. ( Chief Joseph 455) There was no equality present. The Natives tried to fight for their rights to stay but they didn’t stand a chance. The American dream is having equal rights, and feeling as if you are wanted or equal. Everyone wants to be excepted by people and to be treated right. To feel as if you are a equal , what would you do? Many immigrants live in the US looking for equal opportunity. They are happier here because had more opportunity. There are many people who came from different countries to the United States and became very successful . Just like Justin Bieber, a Canadian , he became one of the most famous pop singers in the US. But some people aren’t really here legally . Is it alright to live in the US illegally with good intentions? How far would you go? Would you marry a legal person to get your green card? Would you have a baby just so you can stay in the country? I do think it is okay to break the law if it is absolutely necessary. It does say in the constitution that every person in the US are made equal. So everyone are equal legal or not. The American Dream is feeling as if you are equal , and the US makes everyone here feel that way. Every human deserves equal opportunity. Have you ever thought about life without worries? Just think about , no stress, no coercion. The most successful people live life without worry. Take Wiz Khalifa as an example. A rapper that sends out a message to relax , and let things flow. He never really worried about his career. By living in a nonchalant manner Wiz became one of the top rappers in the US. In many of his interviews he made it clear that what ever happens in life just happens; whether it’s good or bad. If it’s bad you just let it be, just know it could always be worse. As he quoted â€Å" Good things come in good time†. When he says that he’s saying that just be patient. Don’t get upset and worked up. Everyone has their time to shine. A life without worries or the American Dream, can be reached in many way. But how far would you go to have a stress free life. In the Incidents in the Life Slave Girl , the main character Linda runs away in hope that one day her and her children would live a life without strive. Her grandmother patiently waited; she saved up money for each child to buy them. They wanted to be free , so they could live without worrying about being beaten, sold to someone else, or having their family be split up. The American Dream would be secure when Linda and her family are out of slavery. (Jacobs 406) When people picture themselves experiencing The American Dream, they picture themselves doing something they love. As you go through life teachers, parents, and friends install the idea that, when you grow up you should get a job that you love and that your happy doing. According to Militants are living the American Dream. They are getting paid to do jobs that they love and are gifted at. Nurses in particular. They love helping people. They took advantage of the free chance to get paid and work for the country. They also get plenty of benefits. Thats the best part about it. Waking up every morning knowing that your about to being a day that only good can come out of. According to Al Lopez â€Å"Do what you love to do and give your very best. Whether it’s business or baseball, or theater, or any field. If you don’t love what you’re doing and you can’t give it your best,get out of it. Life is too short. You’ll be an old man before you know it†. If you wake up one day wanting to start a job that would make you happy, how far would you go to try and obtain that profession. Would you lie about being certified or having a certain degree? Many systems in the US don’t do background checks on their employees. They just automatically trust and believe that all the information that has been summited is verifiable. People lie everyday to get a job that they know they would be happy in but aren’t willing to put in the work to go to school and get the proper transactions made. Does it matter if your lying on your resumes when your applying for a low ranked job? If your dream job is just working at a window for McDonalds , and you say that you have work experience elsewhere when you really don’t ; is that alright? Celebrity Robert Irvine who is a famous chef lied about designing Prince Charles and Princess Diana’s wedding cake. He was fired from his own show when it was uncovered. Is it worth going that far and risking everything. People would go to far measures to do the things that make them happy in life. Just like in Mark Twains â€Å" The Lowest Animal† it says that they would do whatever they have to do to insure their own happiness. ( Twain 468) When you have come to the climax in our life where you know you love what you are doing and your happy, most people would do whatever it takes to excel in that category. In conclusion The American Dream is living life without worries, having equal opportunity, and doing the things in life that make you happy. It doesn’t matter if you want a equal chance in society , be able to provide for your family, or have a job in a career that you love and can excel in at a blistering rate. The American Dream is obtainable for everyone; it just didn’t happen to Justin Bieber or Wiz Khalifa. The worked for what they got. Like Wiz said everyone has their chance to shine. Sometimes you might have to just sit and wait, in other cases you have to put all you’ve got into being successful. People in America today are relentless . They would do whatever they have to do to be noticed. They lie on resumes to get certain perks. It might not be as serious as lying about designing a wedding cake, but they would go to the ends of the world to make themselves happy. The American Dream is riveting, exciting , and intriguing.

Taylorism and Scientific Management: Work Design Influences

Taylorism and Scientific Management: Work Design Influences The origin of modern management consulting dates back to the early 1900s when Frederick Winslow Taylor, an American mechanical engineer published his work, The Principles of Scientific Management. In his study, Taylor argued that scientific management consisted in devising the one best way to complete a task and then ensuring the workman closely followed the rules, by supervision and incentives. This essay will primarily attempt to discus a proposition that Scientific Management in the 21st century dominates the work design within large firms. Starting with what scientific management is and how it evolved, we will analyze some modern day examples of firms that have adopted Taylorist approach in their businesses. Further, we will highlight both strengths and weaknesses of this approach and also touch base with the works of other authors in the similar domain. Evolution of Scientific Management Adam Smith, the father of Economics, originally developed scientific management in the 1800s. Interested in a factory that operated and produced pins at the rate of 20 pins per employees per day, he applied division of labour i.e. breaking down of complex tasks into numerous simple tasks. As a result of this change, each employee produced 4800 pins per day, a staggering 23900% increase in productivity. However, the greatest breakthrough in scientific management came during the industrial revolution when factories were only focussed on mass production. Workers were trained through lengthy apprenticeships and followed Rules of Thumb i.e. they enjoyed much initiative and control on how their tasks were completed. Also, there was a need to systemize managerial practices. It was here when Taylor, an advisor at the Bethlehem Steel plant, started working towards improving worker productivity after observing gross inefficiencies during his contact with the steel workers. He conducted time st udy and measured performance standards to calculate a full, fair days standard for each task and then emphasized on selection of workers who could meet those standards when motivated by the differential piece rate system. In his book, Taylor (1967, p.10) states prosperity for the employer cannot exist through a long term of years unless it is accompanied by prosperity for the employee, and vice versa; and that it is possible to give the workman what he most wants high wages and the employer what he wants a lower labour cost for his manufacturers. Taylor further suggests that maximum prosperity for a worker can exist only when he has reached his highest state of efficiency and to implement scientific management, the management had to assume much larger share of the responsibility for result rather than the worker and that a managers job is to tell employees what to do and a workers job is to do what they are told and get paid accordingly. Taylor, through various experiment, proposed the four principles of scientific management. First, replace rule-of-thumb work methods with methods based on a scientific study of the tasks. Second, scientifically select, train, and develop each worker rather than passively leaving them to train themselves. Third, cooperate with the workers to ensure that the scientifically developed methods are being followed. And finally, divide work nearly equally between managers and workers, so that the managers apply scientific management principles to planning the work and the workers actually perform the tasks (Taylor, 1967). Taylorism in Industry The First major firm to adopt the principles of scientific management was the Ford Motor Company in 1914. Henry ford believed that the more cars they produce, the more they can sell. His main objective was to mass-produce. Hence he built an assembly-line system, with a constantly moving conveyor belt and minute subdivision of labour. Through subdivision, a complex task was broken into a series of simple tasks for which workers had instructions on how to do it and when to do it. Taylors system insured the most efficient work process was selected and standardized. This way, Ford could employ staff for as cheap as possible and yet keep the quality and efficiency at a satisfactory level. The difference in the productivity levels was striking. Before the assembly line was setup, each car chassis was assembled by one man, taking a time of about twelve and a half hours. Later, with standardization and sub division, the total labour time was reduced to ninety-three minutes per car. This movement of Ford was given the name of Fordism. Taylorism in the 21st century In the 21st century, you can hardly find a successful business enterprise that does not implement the principles of scientific management. It is not that managers study Taylorism before adopting it; in fact these methods of working are so logical that its quite natural to base an efficient business on these principles. McDonalds, the worlds largest chain of fast food restaurants can be seen as a major implementer of scientific management. They have setup their business on the similar lines of a what Henry Ford did to his manufacturing plant, by implementing a human assembly line, where they use food items instead of car parts, and churn out Fast Food instead of automobiles. They follow the highest levels of standardization and sub division. George Ritzer (1996) in his book, The McDonaldization of Society says that the impact of Taylors time and motion studies is very strongly felt at McDonalds. He reiterates Taylors philosophy that the most efficient ways of performing a task has been codified and taught to managers, who further explain to workers. The degree of standardization at McDonalds can be perceived when Ritzer (1996, p.46) mentions, For instance, hamburger chains strive to discover and implement the one best way to grill hamburgers, cook French fries, prepare shakes, process customers, and the rest. One of the major characteristics of Taylorism was the separation of planning, designing and decision making unit of a firm from the production unit. Braverman (1974) supports this attribute of Taylorism in his claim that the production unit operates like a hand that is watched, controlled and corrected by a distant brain, i.e. the management unit. This aspect of Taylorism is very evident in the design of a firms customer care call center. Companies operating in one part of the world often setup/outsource their customer service call centers into countries in another part. For example, an organization based in the UK has its service call center setup in India where labour is very cheap and government policies are favorable. The workers, who may not be skilled, are trained to repeat ad infinitum the same scripted words over and over again and function as a human assembly line. While manufacturing may be moving away from Taylorism, for reasons we will see in the later part of the essay, but the service sector is readily embracing it (Batt Moynihan, 2002). Limitations However, adapting such high levels of standardization and division of labour has some serious limitations. Performing the same simple task, over and over again makes a workers life monotonous and boring. The worker in such an environment is as good as a robotic arm. Ritzer (1996, p.110) criticizes Taylor by stating, Taylors attitude is one precursor to the contemporary effort to reduce human activities to robot-like actions so that humans can actually be replaced by robots. Because Taylor did not have Robots at his disposal, all he could do was hire humans, then dictate to them in great detail what they were to do on the job. To illustrate this further, a Taylorist environment is analogous to software development. Software applications are developed by programmers who write the program code and machines that execute the code and generate output. By giving detailed instructions to workers on what to do and when to do, managers act as programmers and workers as mere machines that execu te the given instructions and generate output. They are not allowed to apply their ideas or exercise any kind of control. As a critique to McDonalds highly scientific and standardized approach, Ritzer (1996, p.15) states that People have the potential to be far more thoughtful, skillful and creative, and well rounded than they are now. If the world were less McDonaldized, people would be better to live up to their human potential. Braverman (1974) substantiates this claim in his statement, Taylorism dominates the world of production; the practitioners of human relations and industrial psychology are the maintenance crew for the human machinery. Hence, in such a work environment, it is hard to motivate employees since money is not always a motivating factor. Some people work for reasons other than financial reward. Also, workers are not homogeneous in their attitudes, work and personality. So the one best way may not be the best for all. By following this approach, firms are de-skilling workers and encouraging them to underperform. Another limitation of the Taylorist approach was that it inspired bureaucracy. According to Warring (1992, p.206), by centralizing power with managers, separating planning from performance, and specializing tasks, firms were encouraging excessive bureaucracy. Managers did not visit the production floor and were thus ignorant of many production matters. They manipulated people like any other factor of production. There was thus a quest to develop an alternative to Taylorism, which called for a stop to treating employees as factors of production, and begin treating them as respected members of community. Human Relation Management The limitations of Taylorism along with practical problems caused by it led to the birth of the human relations school of thought. The movement was established by Elton Mayo, when he conducted a series of behavioral experiments called the Hawthorne Experiments (1924-1933). Two-way communication was encouraged i.e. from worker to chief executive and vice versa for effective management. McGregor (1960) in his book Management and Scientific Knowledge argues that the human relations school is a movement forward from Taylor by inculcating social science into scientific management. He advocated the contribution of social science towards greater productivity in the firm and stated that without predicting human behavior, the control over workers was even harder. He suggested that incentive structure for employee motivation should be aligned with human nature and also claimed that Taylor did not care about ethical values. Conclusion While its is not quite clear that Taylor did not care about ethics and worker motivation as he himself was once a worker at the steel plant. He had also given the idea of setting up suggestion boxes for workers on the shop floor. His main emphasis was on finding the best man for a particular task and motivating him through an incentive structure. Manufacturing today, is moving away from Taylorism. Customers now have more specialized and customized interests. They are willing to pay extra for quality and a differentiated product. Hence, the interest in mass production is declining. Also, with the advent of technology, firms can afford to be more flexible in their production process and reduce the involvement of humans in Repetitive tasks that do not require skill. It is difficult to summarize if Taylorism in its exact sense is dominantly implemented in the 21st century. Just like Henry Ford, Firms have interpreted and modified the scientific management principles in ways to suit their style of business, however, the crux of their efficient existence lies in the principles stated by Taylor. References Batt, R., Moynihan, L. M. (2002). The viability of alternative call center production models. Human Resource Management Journal, 12, 14_/34. Harry Braverman book was Labor and Monopoly Capital: The Degradation of Work in the Twentieth Century McGregor, D., (1960) Chapter 1, Management and scientific knowledge. from McGregor, D., The Human Side of Enterprise. pp.3-15, McGraw-Hill Companies Nelson, D. (1992), Epilogue, in D. Nelson (ed.), A Mental Revolution: Scientific Management since Taylor, Columbus, OH: Ohio State University Press, 237-40 Ritzer, George. (1996) The McDonaldization Of Society. Pine Forge Press Taylor, F.W. (1923).ÂÂ   The Principles of Scientific Management.ÂÂ   New York: Harper Warring, SP., Peter Drucker, MBO, and the Corporatist Critique of Scientific Management. In: D. Nelson, ed.1992. A Mental Revolution. Columbus, OH: Ohio State University Press. Ch. 9. Achieving Competitive Advantage: IKEA Case Study Achieving Competitive Advantage: IKEA Case Study Strategic business units in IKEA Each country is a strategic business unit in IKEA as they are all a part of the organisation but for which there is a distinct external market for goods or services and distinct competitors that is different from another SBU. Also, the financial performance of each country can be clearly evaluated. From the case, it can be noted that each SBU faced the same class of customer the class, but customer behaviors in each SBU are different. For instance the American had a different set f measurement system. Therefore, each SBU needed to tailor its product and service and have particular business strategies in order to satisfy distinct needs in each market segment. Porter (1980) asserts there are basic businesses strategies differentiation, cost leadership, and focus and a company performs best by choosing one strategy on which to concentrate. However, many researchers feel a combination of these strategies (hybrid strategy) may offer a company the best chance to achieve a competitive advantage (Cross, 1999; Karnani, 1984; Miller and Friesen, 1986;; Miller, 1992;). There is much debate as to whether or not a company can have a differentiation and low-cost leadership strategy at the same time (Helms et al., 1997). Porter felt differentiation and cost-leadership were mutually exclusive (Helms et al., 1997). However, research shows this is not the case (Kumar et al. 1997). This case study is an example of how IKEA employed a hybrid strategy and successfully maximize its competitive advantages. Generic strategies can be successfully linked to IKEA performance through the use of key strategic practice. IKEA positioned itself as both a cost leader as well as differentiator. It distinguish itself from its competitor by providing a better shopping experience, a new concept of lifestyle, a wider range of product, a simultaneous service which involved customers participation. As customer have to delivery and assemble the flat packed furniture by themselves, this unique delivery system also partly contributed to IKEAS low cost strategy. Differentiation Differentiation is one of Porters key business strategies. When using this strategy, a company focuses its efforts on providing a unique product or service (Hyatt, 2001; Porter, 1980). IKEA managed to distinguish itself from other furniture merchants by successfully making its customers around the world believe that instead of selling furniture, it was selling a lifestyle by offering a much wider range of home products. It has been commented by Retail Consultant Bryan Roberts that there were other retailers offer affordable furniture, but there is no one else who offer the whole concept in the big shed. In fact, there were 7000 products from kitchen cabinets to candlestick. Thus, the focused diversified production choice is a decisive advantage. And: Hybrid Strategy With a Hybrid strategy, IKEA was simultaneously achieving differentiation and a price lower than competitors which enables it to achieve greater volumes. It counterbalances the risk of just using one generic competitive strategy, such as the loyalty problems caused y cost leadership strategies (Cross, 1999). In fact, it has been found out that when an organization follows a hybrid strategy, they exhibit higher performance than those following either cost leadership or differentiation alone (Kumar et al. 1997). Similarly in their research on the UK wine industry, (Richardson and Dennis, 2003) found the hybrid focused differentiation approach was best for niche segments. (Spanos et al., 2004) studied the Greek manufacturing industry and found hybrid strategies were preferable to pure strategies. and how they can be applied to the case. You dont do so with every argument however, sometimes you simply offer opinions such as: These product differentiations fulfilled customer need and involves tailoring the product or service to the customer. This allows IKEA to capture market share. The differentiation strategy is effectively implemented as IKEA provides unique and superior value to the customer through product quality. Also, the message of differentiation reached its clients (McCracken, 2002). It s vital to the effectiveness of the strategy as the customers perceptions of the company are important (Berthoff, 2002). These senses of differentiation created strong brand loyalty among IKEA customers and lower their price sensitivity. This helps to insulate IKEA from competitive rivalry. Second, the lack of perceived acceptable alternatives with comparable combinations of features and costs increases the IKEAs power over customers. Third, with the existing customer loyalty, potential competitors need to overcome the attractive uniqueness of IKEA product so it creates substantial entry barriers. While some researchers suggested that when using differentiation, firms must be prepared to add a premium to the cost (Hyatt, 2001), as customers perceive the product or service as unique, they are loyal to the company and willing to pay the higher price for its products (Cross, 1999), price therefore is not the main focus, IKEA went for a different approach. It employed a hybrid strategy which combined differentiation and low cost and focus strategy. Which, whilst they cite references do not offer justification and support for the views that you are expressing. And in other places you merely summarise the theory without providing clear linkages to how this relates to the case such as in saying: Sustainable competitive advantage Sustainable competitive advantage can be achieved through the following methods. Achieving Low Prices Operate with lower margins Develop a unique cost structure Create efficiency in Organizational capabilities Focus on market segments with low expectations Achieving Sustainable Differentiation Create difficulties of imitation Create a situation of imperfect mobility Establish a lower cost position Establishing Strategic Lock-In Size or market dominance First-mover dominance Self-reinforcing commitment Insistence on preservation of position Paraphrasing or summarising the theory is not, on its own, proof that you know how to apply it in a practical situation such as the case study. Be careful of simply offering assertions and opinions you need to cite evidence and draw in facts from the case, compare and contrast them to the models and frameworks from the course and then draw strategic conclusions from that process. When you actually try to apply the concepts explicitly such as in saying: The CAGE Framework The CAGE of Distance framework can be applied in this case study of IKEA in a large extends. The four dimension of distance namely cultural distance administrative and political distance, geographic distance and economic distance between the Sweden and its foreign markets indicated how different is the foreign market and what strategy should IKEA adapt accordingly (Ross, 1999). It has been illustrated by the IKEAs difficulties in reaching the California Hispanic market. Hispanic is geographically far away from Sweden, socially different in term of having larger family size and different color preference. Also there was economically different. Thus IKEA designers need to customize product and pricing strategy according to the particular market needs. The result is more seats were added to dining tables and sofa. Showroom color was warmed to avoid the more subdued Scandinavian palette. you are demonstrating a level of understanding and application of some of the marketing concepts in this response that is at least the sort of thing we are expecting from a postgraduate student at this point in your studies, and sometimes even better than expected. These demonstrate an understanding of the concepts that is appropriate and explicit. Whilst the way that the concepts have been described and applied is really sound, and I was pleased to see the use of a wide range of concepts but remember that you need to use them to analyse (explain and interpret) rather than simply to observe and comment and throw in some course references as headings or citations such as in saying: Strategic position Strategic capability Internally, some strength of IKEA can be identified in the case. IKEAs core competences lay on it low cost distribution system and innovation product design which ease manufacture and distribution which enable the organization to become cost leadership. Besides, with the company creative flair, strong capability in research and product engineering, IKEA can put its differentiation strategy into practised effectively. Macro Environments Externally, IKEA was benefited from the opportunities identified below. Economically, the growing size of the world middle class especially in China, India and Russia implies that there will be an increasing need of IKEAs product (contemporary household furniture with value of money). Also the growing wealth with the worlds population means middle class with higher purchasing power. Socially, the fact that the new emerge middle class are more aware of their home design present an opportunity for IKEA to expand. In conclusion, it e be seen that IKEA has successfully generated strategic choices that utilized its strength to take advantage of opportunities The difference between analysis and commentary is the capacity to interpret and make explicit what the facts are telling you. Commentary on the other hand describes what you see and asserts (rather than proves or demonstrates) a set of conclusions. So, if you take the wide range of course concepts that you are obviously familiar with and compare and contrast a little more explicitly facts and evidence from the case itself, it will make your arguments flow much more directly, and more reasoned conclusions emerge. From time to time, what you offer here is like an explanation of the theory and an assertion that X is true at IKEA! without always providing specific evidence and analysis to substantiate the comments. Understanding how you get to conclusions from your analysis is as important as setting out what the conclusions are. However while it strikes me that your observations about could use some more reasoning your other answers are sound and reflect a good understanding of strategy . Overall, this is well-structured and laid out piece of work and offers a clear indication of your emerging understanding of this subject and ability to apply it in practice good work.

воскресенье, 21 июля 2019 г.

Business Disaster Recovery Plan

Business Disaster Recovery Plan DISASTER RECOVERY Business continuity programs are designed to keep a business up and running in the face of a disaster, but unfortunately, they dont always work. Sometimes, continuity controls fail or the sheer magnitude of a disaster overwhelms the organizations capacity to continue operations. Thats where disaster recovery begins. Disaster recovery is a subset of business continuity activities designed to restore a business to normal operations as quickly as possible following a disruption. The disaster recovery plan may include: 1. Immediate measures that get operations up and running again temporarily, but the disaster recovery effort is not finished until the organization is completely back to normal operations. 2. Initial Response following an Emergency disruption to an Organisation is designed to: Contain the damage caused by the disaster. Recover whatever capabilities that can be immediately restored. Include a variety of activities depending upon the nature of the disaster and may include activating an alternate processing facility, containing physical damage or calling in contractors to begin an emergency response. During a disaster recovery effort, the focus of most of the organization shifts from normal business activity to a concentrated effort to restore operations as quickly as possible. But before we go into detailed recovery plan, we need to consider risk assessment (RA) and business impact analysis (BIA) to identify the IT services that support the academy critical business activities. Which we will then establish the recovery time objectives (RTOs) and recovery point objectives (RPOs). The recovery time objective, or RTO, is the targeted amount of time that it will take to restore a service to operation following a disruption. The organization must also think about the amount of data that it needs to restore as well. The recovery point objective, or RPO, is the maximum time from which data may be lost as the result of a disaster. Together, the RTO and RPO provide valuable information to disaster recovery planning. Before we explain more about the planning process we need to follow some strategies that will help us to make a proper planning process. The Disaster recovery strategies, ISO/IEC 27031, the global standard for IT disaster recovery, states, Strategies should define the approaches to implement the required resilience so that the principles of incident prevention, detection, response, recovery and restoration are put in place. Strategies define what you plan to do when responding to an incident, while plans describe how you will do it. Once you have identified your critical systems, RTOs, RPOs, as shown in the table below, we can formulate the disaster recovery strategies that is suitable to protect them. Critical systems RTO/RPO Threat Prevention strategy Response strategy Recovery strategy Account payable 4hrs/2hrs Server Failure Secure equipment room, backup server, UPS Switch over to backup server, validate UPS running Fix/replace primary server. fall back to primary server Building security 2hrs/2hrs Security systems destroyed Locate systems in secure area, UPS, install protective enclosures around sensor unit. Deploy guards at strategic points Obtain/install replacement units, sensors We have been able to modify strategy to planning process in this second table below; Critical systems Threat Response strategy Response action steps Recovery strategy Recovery action steps Account payable Server Failure Switch over to backup server, validate UPS running verify server is down, verify data has been backed up and is safe, test backup server, start switchover to alternate server. Fix/replace primary server, fall back to primary server. verify cause of server outage, obtain new server, install new server, test new server, fail systems back to new server. Security systems destroyed Deploy guards at strategic points Verify security system is down, verify security data has been backup and is safe, contact guard agencies to source on-site guards, define guard duties, brief guards on duties, provide communications devices for guards. Obtain/install replacement units, sensors verify cause of security system outage, contact supplier to get a replacement, test replacement system, test sensors, restart security systems. When developing your organisation Disaster recovery plans, we make sure to review the global standards ISO/IEC 24762 for disaster recovery and ISO/IEC 27035.This is a standard of requirements which deal with all aspects of information security within your organisation. This can vary from physical to intellectual to electronic security. You will establish what is critical to your business and how you therefore control and protect these aspects. http://www.computerweekly.com/feature/How-to-write-a-disaster-recovery-plan-and-define-disaster-recovery-strategies http://www.cqsltd.com/other-iso-certifications/iso-27001.aspx?gclid=CjwKEAjw5M3GBRCTvpK4osqj4X4SJAABRJNC7bI7foCmSkHGTD9Zq4Q2Mu1emYpUEbahM7EaUDYv_RoCfXDw_wcB From a staffing perspective; This means that many employees will be working in temporary jobs that may be completely different from their normally assigned duties. Flexibility is key during a disaster response. Also, the organization should plan disaster responsibilities as much as possible in advance and provide employees with training that prepares them to do their part during disaster recovery. Communication is critical to disaster recovery efforts. Responders must have secure, reliable means to communicate with each other and with the organizations leadership. This communication includes ; the initial communication required to activate the disaster recovery process, even if the disaster occurs after normal business hours. It also includes regular status updates for both employees in the field and leadership and it should include ad hoc communications capabilities to meet tactical needs.