суббота, 31 августа 2019 г.

Summary Response

Agents of Change and Nonviolent Action* Nonviolent action is a way for ordinary people to fight for their rights, freedom, and justice. It is frequently associated with moral or ethical nonviolence, but I will address it here as a distinct phenomenon, separate from any moral or ethical underpinnings, to expand on how it works as a pragmatic way to exert leverage in a conflict. Nonviolent action is based on the insight that power in a society is ultimately derived from people’s consent and obedience.In contrast, the prevailing view is that power in a society is inherently based on whoever has concentrated wealth and the greatest capacity for violence. But just as the economy is a subsystem of the biosphere— and therefore is ultimately governed by the laws of the biosphere—so too, systems of power that are seemingly based on violence and money are actually subsystems of thousands or millions of people’s broader behavior and obedience patterns.If those people shift their loyalties, behavior, and obedience, the balance of power in a society, and in the world, shifts. Simply put, if people do not obey, then rulers or corporations cannot rule. Nonviolent action, therefore, wields power by creating shifts in people’s loyalties, behavior and obedience patterns at a collective level. This can happen dramatically, for example as it did at moments during the Indian Independence Struggle, the US Civil Rights Movement, various labor struggles (i. . the United Farm Workers movement in the mid-late 1960s), and the downfall of Ferdinand Marcos (1986), Augusto Pinochet (1988), Apartheid in South Africa (1980s-90s), Slobodan Milosevic (2000), and the authoritarian system in Ukraine (2004). Or, shifts can happen more subtly, as when people choose to shop at locally owned businesses, boycott a product, or work to develop alternative institutions and economies.Regardless of its myriad of methods and manifestations, all acts of nonviolent action fa ll into one of three categories: acts of 1 Â © 2008 Hardy Merriman. *A slightly modified version of this essay appeared in: Conservation Biology, Volume 22, No. 2, April 2008 pp. 241-2. commission—that is, people do things that they are not expected, supposed, or allowed to do; acts of omission—that is, people do not do things that they are expected, supposed, or required to do; or a combination of acts of commission and omission. In order to promote shifts in people’s obedience and behavior patterns, it is important to understand why people obey and behave as they do in the first place. Reasons will differ from society to society, but two of the most common reasons for obedience that I encounter in my work with activists and organizers around the world are that people feel there is no alternative way of behaving and they lack confidence that their actions make a difference. Many people have forgotten that they are the true power holders in their society.Of cou rse formal education, corporations, governments, and media all reinforce the narrative that power resides among the few individuals in a government building or corporate headquarters, and that money and guns (on which they have a monopoly) are the ultimate source of strength. This narrative suits their purposes well. Successful nonviolent movements throughout history, however, have awakened people to the fact that through their collective actions, people who are organized around a common vision and act strategically are far stronger than armies and money.Any contemporary grassroots movement that wants to gain traction should take note of this fact and make reminding people that they are powerful a central point of its rhetoric. Taking this one step further, successful movements not only tell people that they are powerful, they demonstrate people’s power by setting clear, achievable objectives and then documenting and publicizing their victories. The victories themselves may b e limited, but their impact on mobilizing people can be enormous.For example, the US Civil Rights Movement concentrated its strength on desegregating buses in Montgomery, Alabama in 1955-56 and desegregating Nashville lunch counters in 1960. The Indian Independence Movement focused its effort on gaining concessions from the British on the Salt Acts and others laws in 1930-31. Once achieved, these objectives were small 1 Gene Sharp, Waging Nonviolent Struggle: 20th Century Practice and 21st Century Potential, (Boston, MA: Porter Sargent Publishers), 2005, p. 547. 2 Â © 2008 Hardy Merriman. A slightly modified version of this essay appeared in: Conservation Biology, Volume 22, No. 2, April 2008 pp. 241-2. relative to the mammoth task of overturning segregation in the entire US South or gaining independence in India. But their true impact was in their catalyzing effect on the movements themselves. These victories showed people that their actions mattered and that they were capable of making a difference, which led to great increases in support and mobilization and propelled these movements to the national and international center stage.These objectives were not achieved merely because the US Civil Rights Movement or the Indian Independence Movement occupied the moral high ground. They were achieved also because of hard work, creativity, and skillful political analysis. This is true of all successful nonviolent action. However, many neglect this fact and instead assume that nonviolent action consists primarily of public protests, expressions of outrage, and moral injunctions, or that its success depends on a charismatic leader or some sort of mystical power. It does not.Nor does it require people who are ideologically committed to pacifism or ethical nonviolence. What it does require is an inclusive vision that unites people, sound strategic planning, effective public communications, and the identification of appropriate methods for the situation. There is no one -size-fits-all recipe—nonviolent action is place-specific. While the principles that govern it, such as power being based on consent and obedience, are constant across all struggles, its application depends on the context and particulars of a given society.Whether it manifests as bold public action, subtle shifts in buying patterns, or both (most movements have a wide variety of tactics that are designed to be used by people with different levels of involvement), it provides a way for people to use or create political space in their society from which to leverage concessions from an entrenched adversary. Fortunately, a lot of intellectual work, research, and communication have been done about how people can use, and historically have used, nonviolent action to achieve great results.Demand for this knowledge is increasing among those who recognize the power and potential that nonviolent action holds. You won’t read about this in most 3 Â © 2008 Hardy Merriman. *A sligh tly modified version of this essay appeared in: Conservation Biology, Volume 22, No. 2, April 2008 pp. 241-2. newspapers, and you won’t find a lot of politicians talking about it, but if you talk to grassroots organizers and members of civil society around the world, they will tell you. They recognize that it is the people in a society who are the agents of change and that structural change is created from the ground up.They are not waiting for a person to lead them, because they understand that most government and corporate leaders will not take the lead to do what is right if their populations are disengaged and do not know the means to hold them accountable. Therefore, people around the world are increasingly looking towards nonviolent action (which they may use in conjunction with voting, the legal system, or other traditional means of making change) as a pragmatic way to empower their communities to win human rights, freedom, justice, transparency, women’s, indige nous people’s and minority rights and environmental protection.Regardless of the objective for which nonviolent action is used, its prerequisite is the same: a reframing of the concept of power in people’s minds. Sharing this knowledge, and awakening people to their power, is an essential task in shifting humanity’s course. 4 Â © 2008 Hardy Merriman. *A slightly modified version of this essay appeared in: Conservation Biology, Volume 22, No. 2, April 2008 pp. 241-2. Summary Response Agents of Change and Nonviolent Action* Nonviolent action is a way for ordinary people to fight for their rights, freedom, and justice. It is frequently associated with moral or ethical nonviolence, but I will address it here as a distinct phenomenon, separate from any moral or ethical underpinnings, to expand on how it works as a pragmatic way to exert leverage in a conflict. Nonviolent action is based on the insight that power in a society is ultimately derived from people’s consent and obedience.In contrast, the prevailing view is that power in a society is inherently based on whoever has concentrated wealth and the greatest capacity for violence. But just as the economy is a subsystem of the biosphere— and therefore is ultimately governed by the laws of the biosphere—so too, systems of power that are seemingly based on violence and money are actually subsystems of thousands or millions of people’s broader behavior and obedience patterns.If those people shift their loyalties, behavior, and obedience, the balance of power in a society, and in the world, shifts. Simply put, if people do not obey, then rulers or corporations cannot rule. Nonviolent action, therefore, wields power by creating shifts in people’s loyalties, behavior and obedience patterns at a collective level. This can happen dramatically, for example as it did at moments during the Indian Independence Struggle, the US Civil Rights Movement, various labor struggles (i. . the United Farm Workers movement in the mid-late 1960s), and the downfall of Ferdinand Marcos (1986), Augusto Pinochet (1988), Apartheid in South Africa (1980s-90s), Slobodan Milosevic (2000), and the authoritarian system in Ukraine (2004). Or, shifts can happen more subtly, as when people choose to shop at locally owned businesses, boycott a product, or work to develop alternative institutions and economies.Regardless of its myriad of methods and manifestations, all acts of nonviolent action fa ll into one of three categories: acts of 1 Â © 2008 Hardy Merriman. *A slightly modified version of this essay appeared in: Conservation Biology, Volume 22, No. 2, April 2008 pp. 241-2. commission—that is, people do things that they are not expected, supposed, or allowed to do; acts of omission—that is, people do not do things that they are expected, supposed, or required to do; or a combination of acts of commission and omission. In order to promote shifts in people’s obedience and behavior patterns, it is important to understand why people obey and behave as they do in the first place. Reasons will differ from society to society, but two of the most common reasons for obedience that I encounter in my work with activists and organizers around the world are that people feel there is no alternative way of behaving and they lack confidence that their actions make a difference. Many people have forgotten that they are the true power holders in their society.Of cou rse formal education, corporations, governments, and media all reinforce the narrative that power resides among the few individuals in a government building or corporate headquarters, and that money and guns (on which they have a monopoly) are the ultimate source of strength. This narrative suits their purposes well. Successful nonviolent movements throughout history, however, have awakened people to the fact that through their collective actions, people who are organized around a common vision and act strategically are far stronger than armies and money.Any contemporary grassroots movement that wants to gain traction should take note of this fact and make reminding people that they are powerful a central point of its rhetoric. Taking this one step further, successful movements not only tell people that they are powerful, they demonstrate people’s power by setting clear, achievable objectives and then documenting and publicizing their victories. The victories themselves may b e limited, but their impact on mobilizing people can be enormous.For example, the US Civil Rights Movement concentrated its strength on desegregating buses in Montgomery, Alabama in 1955-56 and desegregating Nashville lunch counters in 1960. The Indian Independence Movement focused its effort on gaining concessions from the British on the Salt Acts and others laws in 1930-31. Once achieved, these objectives were small 1 Gene Sharp, Waging Nonviolent Struggle: 20th Century Practice and 21st Century Potential, (Boston, MA: Porter Sargent Publishers), 2005, p. 547. 2 Â © 2008 Hardy Merriman. A slightly modified version of this essay appeared in: Conservation Biology, Volume 22, No. 2, April 2008 pp. 241-2. relative to the mammoth task of overturning segregation in the entire US South or gaining independence in India. But their true impact was in their catalyzing effect on the movements themselves. These victories showed people that their actions mattered and that they were capable of making a difference, which led to great increases in support and mobilization and propelled these movements to the national and international center stage.These objectives were not achieved merely because the US Civil Rights Movement or the Indian Independence Movement occupied the moral high ground. They were achieved also because of hard work, creativity, and skillful political analysis. This is true of all successful nonviolent action. However, many neglect this fact and instead assume that nonviolent action consists primarily of public protests, expressions of outrage, and moral injunctions, or that its success depends on a charismatic leader or some sort of mystical power. It does not.Nor does it require people who are ideologically committed to pacifism or ethical nonviolence. What it does require is an inclusive vision that unites people, sound strategic planning, effective public communications, and the identification of appropriate methods for the situation. There is no one -size-fits-all recipe—nonviolent action is place-specific. While the principles that govern it, such as power being based on consent and obedience, are constant across all struggles, its application depends on the context and particulars of a given society.Whether it manifests as bold public action, subtle shifts in buying patterns, or both (most movements have a wide variety of tactics that are designed to be used by people with different levels of involvement), it provides a way for people to use or create political space in their society from which to leverage concessions from an entrenched adversary. Fortunately, a lot of intellectual work, research, and communication have been done about how people can use, and historically have used, nonviolent action to achieve great results.Demand for this knowledge is increasing among those who recognize the power and potential that nonviolent action holds. You won’t read about this in most 3 Â © 2008 Hardy Merriman. *A sligh tly modified version of this essay appeared in: Conservation Biology, Volume 22, No. 2, April 2008 pp. 241-2. newspapers, and you won’t find a lot of politicians talking about it, but if you talk to grassroots organizers and members of civil society around the world, they will tell you. They recognize that it is the people in a society who are the agents of change and that structural change is created from the ground up.They are not waiting for a person to lead them, because they understand that most government and corporate leaders will not take the lead to do what is right if their populations are disengaged and do not know the means to hold them accountable. Therefore, people around the world are increasingly looking towards nonviolent action (which they may use in conjunction with voting, the legal system, or other traditional means of making change) as a pragmatic way to empower their communities to win human rights, freedom, justice, transparency, women’s, indige nous people’s and minority rights and environmental protection.Regardless of the objective for which nonviolent action is used, its prerequisite is the same: a reframing of the concept of power in people’s minds. Sharing this knowledge, and awakening people to their power, is an essential task in shifting humanity’s course. 4 Â © 2008 Hardy Merriman. *A slightly modified version of this essay appeared in: Conservation Biology, Volume 22, No. 2, April 2008 pp. 241-2.

Finding the Right Apartment Essay

So you are ready to take a leap of faith and branch out on your own, into the world and embrace your new found freedom by renting an apartment. That is fantastic, but first you may need help with choosing the apartment that best suits you, your lifestyle and most importantly, your budget. This is all a fairly easy project to accomplish if you know what you are doing, but it can also be very time consuming and stressful if you do not know what you are doing while also juggling a full time job. First, you have to locate a few different apartments to be able to choose the one you love. Start by doing some research on the internet. Also, ask around your community if you plan on staying in the current area you are in now. Make sure to read the local newspapers as well. If you have children, research apartment communities closet to their school. If you have pets, find apartments that will accommodate them. Research the area to see if you are near a bus line, a taxi service or within close proximity to your family and friends, should you ever need a ride to and from work due to car troubles. After that, try your best to narrow your list down to three or four apartments. Next, meet with the leasing agents for each of the apartments you want to view. Make sure you take a good look around and see everything they have to offer. Ask what type of amenities the complex has to offer. For example, do they have a gated entrance, 24 hour gym, a pool, a spa or sauna, playground area, garages for rent and/or laundry mat services on site? When inside the actual apartment, check to make sure how many bedrooms will be beneficial to you. Make sure there is enough closet and cabinet space for all of your belongings. Ask any and all questions. Be sure to ask about alarm services if you notice an alarm system built in. Ask if everything is gas or electric powered and if it has central heating and air. Ask what utility companies they use. You may be able to transfer over your previous services if they use the same ones. If you do not like the current color of the walls, ask if you can paint over them, as long as you paint them back or prime them upon move out. Also, decide if you want a bottom or top floor and ask if your preference is available. Of course, problems and hurdles may arise, but with honesty and careful consideration of the initial problem, you can overcome the problems. Some problems that may arise are bad information on your background check that will stall the rental process. Be honest with them and they may be willing to work with you under the circumstances. Another hurdle could be unexpected problems with your finances. In this case, you will need to sit down. Go over your finances and make cuts on what you do not need and factor in what you do need. Play around with the numbers until you have comfortably figured out your living expenses. You may end up being one of the lucky ones and have a â€Å"smooth sailing† through the entire rental process, but if you do not, take it one step at a time until you have overcome any and all obstacles. Once you have decided upon the right apartment complex for you, you will need to sign a lease. Before your sign the lease and pay all your deposit and application fees, ask if your deposit is refundable. Also ask if they give application fee discounts if you are a college student. Decide the lease length you need and ask if they offer month to month, a 3 month, 6 month, 12 month or 18 month lease. Ask if the lease is a done locked deal or if you can break the lease say you should have to move away. Remember that no question is a wrong question, so ask anything that comes to mind. After you sign that lease, congratulations, you are now an adult with your very own place. Living on your own can be difficult at times but it is very rewarding and empowering and it helps to boost your confidence and self esteem. Knowing you have truly stepped into your own skin and into true adulthood is one of the greatest satisfactions you may experience in your young life. Taste it, savor it and enjoy it. You deserve it!

пятница, 30 августа 2019 г.

Psychology of a Serial Killer Essay

Abstract Serial killings are defined as â€Å"having three or more victims in as many locations and as different events with the killer having a ‘cool off’ between each attack† (Fox & Levin, 2005, p. 17). Serial killings also happen over a period of months or years with the killer leading a normal life in between. Psychology is the scientific study of behavior and mental process. â€Å"There are grounds for the point of view that serial killers act from a conscious perspective but are influenced by a variety of unconscious drives† (Holmes & Burger, 1988, p. 98). There are different views of what makes a serial killer, ranging from mental instability or defect to problematic and abusive childhoods. Looking at the murders, methods, victims, and motivations of three different serial killers received from coroner reports, witness accounts, and their own point of view provides an opportunity to see any similarities behind what drove them to kill. Psychology of a Serial Killer Jack the Ripper Considered one of the most infamous of the world’s serial killers, Jack the Ripper’s murder spree lasted from 1888 to 1892 in the East End of London. Also known as the Whitechapel Murderer, he attacked prostitutes during late night and early morning hours, mutilating his victims’ bodies with the skill of someone who knows basic anatomy. Jack the Ripper’s first known victim was Mary Nichols, a prostitute, who was found early in the morning in a gateway in Bucks Row, Whitechapel on 31 August 1888. â€Å"She was lying on her back with her legs straight out, skirts raised almost to her waist and throat slashed almost to the point of beheading† (Jones, 2010). His second victim was Annie Chapman, another prostitute, found 8 September 1888 in the backyard of 29 Hanbury Street at 6am. The official coroner report stated: The left arm was placed across the left breast. The legs were drawn up, the feet resting on the ground, and the knees turned outwards. The face was swollen and turned on the right side. The tongue protruded between the front teeth, but not beyond the lips. The tongue was evidently much swollen. The front teeth were perfect as far as the first molar, top and bottom and very fine teeth they were. The body was terribly mutilated†¦the stiffness of the limbs was not marked, but was evidently commencing. He noticed that the throat was dissevered deeply; that the incisions through the skin were jagged and reached right round the neck. On the wooden paling between the yard in question and the next, smears of blood, corresponding to where the head of the deceased lay, were to be seen. These were about 14 inches from the ground and immediately above the part where the blood from the neck was pooled. (Jones, 2010) Later, after the body was moved to the morgue, the autopsy conducted revealed Annie Chapman was missing her womb. The third victim was Elizabeth Stride on 30 September 1888. She was found at one in the morning in Dutfield Yard. Her throat was cut but, â€Å"she was lying on the ground as though quietly placed there† (Jones, 2010), obviously, one of Jack the Rippe r’s less horrific murders. Roughly forty-five minutes after finding Stride, the body of Catherine Eddowes was found in Mitre Square laying on her back, clothes thrown above her waist and her throat slit as well. Jack the Ripper’s fifth and supposedly final victim was Mary Kelly on 9 November 1888. She was found that morning at 10:45 in the morning in her room at Millers Court. The coroner report stated: The body was lying naked in the middle of the bed, the shoulders flat, but the axis of the body inclined to the left side of the bed. The head was turned on the left cheek. The left arm was close to the body with the forearm flexed at a right angle & lying across the abdomen. The right arm was slightly abducted from the body & rested on the mattress, the elbow bent & the forearm supine with the fingers clenched. The legs were wide apart, the left thigh at right angles to the trunk & the right forming an obtuse angle with the pubes. The whole of the surface of the abdomen & thighs was removed & the abdominal Cavity emptied of its viscera. The breasts were cut off, the arms mutilated by several jagged wounds & the face hacked beyond recognition of the features. The tissues of the neck were severed all round down to the bone. The viscera were found in various parts viz: the uterus & Kidneys with one breast under the head, the other breast by the Rt foot, the Liver between the feet, the intestines by the right side & the spleen by the left side of the body. The flaps removed from the abdomen and thighs were on a table. The bed clothing at the right corner was saturated with blood, & on the floor beneath was a pool of blood covering about 2 feet square†¦ The face was gashed in all directions the nose cheeks, eyebrows and ears being partly removed. The lips were blanched & cut by several incisions running obliquely down to the chin. There were also numerous cuts extending irregularly across all the features. (Jones, 2010) Police later found that at four in the morning, neighbors had heard muffled calls of murder but had ignored them believing them to be from a case of domestic violence. Little else is known of Jack the Ripper as he was never caught. Speculations about his identity range from the severely impoverished to the very wealthy, and suspects are being added to the list to this day. John Haigh A respectable, well dressed, middle-class man of the 1940’s, John Haigh was a depraved killer who frequently blamed his strict religious upbringing for his actions. He was raised in a purist and anti-clerical household where he was cut off from normal society and his only source of entertainment came from the Bible. According to Haigh’s father, the world was evil and a person who sinned became marked and evil. The fear of gaining such a mark caused Haigh to be terrified of doing anything wrong. â€Å"It is said that a turning point in the boy’s developing psyche came when Haigh realized that no such blemish would appear, despite having lied or committed some other questionable behavior. He then started to believe that he was invincible and could get away with anything† (UK, 2005-2011) thus causing Haigh to become a manipulating and compulsive liar. After leaving his parents’ home, Haigh became a salesman and took to illegal activities such as fraud that usually landed him in prison serving short sentences. Haigh’s first victim was from the McSwan Family, a family he had come to know well; he lived with them and worked for them before marrying the daughter later. September 1944, Haigh took Donald McSwan to his residence where he then killed him; â€Å"the murder was carefully planned – having bludgeoned his victim with a club (or a similar weapon); Haigh then destroyed the body in a vat of acid. When bone and flesh had been reduced to a sludge-like mess, he poured the gooey residue onto the dirt surface of an open yard behind the building† (John Haigh-Acid Bath Killer, n.d.) When Donald’s parents began asking Haigh about their son’s disappearance, he concocted a lie then lured them to his residence and disposed of them in the same fashion. He forged all their assets into his name and then promptly lost it gambling and began looking towards murder again. Haigh’s next victims were old retiree’s, Rosalie and Archibald Henderson that he met by acting as though he was going to buy a house from them. February 1948, he drove Dr. Henderson to his workshop where he shot him in the head and disposed of the body by dumping it into a vat of sulphuric acid. He then returned to Mrs. Henderson and told her that her husband had taken sick and needed her. She accompanied Haigh to his workshop where she met the same lethal fate as her husband. In both the McSwan and Henderson murders, Haigh emulated his victims’ handwriting and sent notes to their servants, relatives and friends; he explained that they had moved to Australia or some other distant place, mentioning that ‘Mr. Haigh’ would settle their affairs. (John Haigh-Acid Bath Killer, n.d.) Haigh gained a substantial amount of money from the Henderson’s which he again lost to gambling. Haigh found and killed his next victim on 18 February 1949. Mrs. Durand-Deacon accompanied him to the Gloucester Road address. As soon as she entered the basement premises, Haigh shot her in the back of the head, killing her instantly. He stripped her and dumped her body into a 40-gallon vat of sulphuric acid. Haigh drained the receptacle through a basement sewer; afterwards, he scraped the sludge from the vat and dumped this onto the dirt of the back yard. This was hard work and Haigh, according to his later statements, paused to go to the nearby Ye Olde Ancient Prior’s Restaurant where he ate an egg on toast. He then returned to his workshop to â€Å"tidy up†. (John Haigh-Acid Bath Killer, n.d.) This would be the murder that got him caught. Haigh decided to play the concerned citizen since his latest victim was so close to home so he approached her closet friend, Mrs. Lane, and asked about Mrs. Durand -Deacon. After replying that the friend had thought Mrs. Durand-Deacon had left with him, Haigh quickly denied the accusation. The following day, he asked the same question to Mrs. Lane who decided to report the disappearance to the police. Haigh accompanied her to the police station to navigate suspicion away from himself, but one police officer preformed a background investigation on Haigh and because of what he saw became suspicious. Haigh was arrested and sentenced to death regardless of his claims and demonstrations of insanity. Jesse H. Pomeroy â€Å"The Boy Fiend, Jesse Pomeroy, is the youngest convicted serial killer in history† (Wilhiem, 2010). Starting with a troubled childhood due to a birth defect, Pomeroy was the subject of ridicule among his peers and his father couldn’t stand the sight of him and would viciously beat him when angry before his mother chased him off. It was stated that; Jesse was an intelligent boy, if somewhat anti-social. He would not join the other boys in baseball games or other athletic pursuits, but he was fond of playing ‘scouts and Indians’ where he would invariably be an Indian and devise elaborate imaginary tortures for captive scouts (Wilhiem, 2010). Pomeroy’s mother was the first to notice something was wrong with her son after finding the heads twisted off her parakeets’ heads. The start of Pomeroy’s decent into murder began in Boston with Billy Paine who was found beaten in an outhouse. Soon after the police found Tracy Hayden in the same outhouse where â€Å"He was tied, stripped naked, and whipped across the back. The boy hit him in the face with a board, breaking his nose and knocking out two teeth. Then he threatened to cut off Tracy’s penis† (Wilhiem, 2010). Pomeroy’s third victim was Robert Maier who withstood the same brutal treatment. Chelsea police interviewed hundreds of boys but received no leads. Rumors began to circulate about the description of the killer and the picture people portrayed were that of the devil. Pomeroy was named â€Å"The Boy Torturer† after stripping and beating Johnny Balch. Pomeroy’s mother, suspected her son, and moved to South Boston with her family where the assaults continued only more often and more inhumane. â€Å"On August 17, seven-year-old George Pratt was abducted and wa s not just flogged. This time the abductor stuck a needle in his arm and his groin, and bit chunks of flesh from his face and buttocks† (Wilhiem, 2010). Pomeroy began using a knife to stab his victims repeatedly before attempting to cut off their genitalia. Robert Gould was the eighth victim and able to give police a useful description of his assailant. The parents of Gould refused to allow him to be escorted around to identify his attacker, and police were forced to ask Pomeroy’s seventh victim, Joseph Kennedy, who was then shown around the local schools and even came face to face with Pomeroy and was unable to identify him as the killer. That day, after school, for reasons Jesse was never able to explain, he went to the police station. Seeing Joseph Kennedy there, he quickly turned and left the station, but a policeman followed him out and brought him back. Now, looking closer, young Joseph saw the white eye and identified Jesse as his torturer. Jesse was held in a cell overnight and was persuaded to confess. The next day all of the victims identified him as their attacker. Jesse, then 12 years old, was sentenced to the reformatory, ‘for the term of his minority’ – a period of six years. (Wilhiem, 2010) Pomeroy acted as though he was better within the reformatory and seventeen months after his arrest, Pomeroy was placed on probation and set free. â€Å"March 18, 1874, 10-year-old Katie Curran left her home to buy a notebook for school and never returned. She was last seen entering Mrs. Pomeroy’s store. Everyone in the neighborhood knew Jesse’s history and the Corrans feared the worst.† (Wilhiem, 2010) At the police station Captain Dyer assured Mrs. Curran that Jesse could not be involved—he had been completely rehabilitated; besides he was only known to attack little boys. â€Å"Katie’s father was a Catholic and reflecting the attitudes of the time; local rumors said he sent her to a convent† (Wilhiem, 2010). Thirty-six days later a little boy, Horace Millen, was seen walking toward the wharf. Later that day Millen’s body was found half naked on the beach; he was stabbed multiple times in the chest, almost beheaded and half castrated. Pomeroy was the first person to come to the police chief’s mind upon hearing about the murders, but he quickly dismissed it on the assumption that Pomeroy was still in the reformatory, his men quickly corrected the assumption and were ordered to arrest Pomeroy. Pomeroy denied all charges, even when confronted with forensic evidence, until he was taken to see the dead body of Millen where â€Å"He admitted he killed Horace, something made him do it. He was sorry and wanted to leave. He told the policemen: ‘Put me somewhere, so I can’t do such things’† (Wilhiem, 2010). Pomeroy’s mother’s business suffered due to the recent events with her son, and she was forced to sell to a grocery chain. During renovations the decomposing body of Katie Curran was found under a heap of ashes and was only identifiable from her clothing. Pomeroy’s mother and brother were arrested for murder but were cleared by Pomeroy confessing to Curran’s murder after interrogation. Later, Pomeroy claimed to have only admitted guilt to save his mother. Pomeroy’s lawyers fought for the insanity plea but were denied because prosecution proved he knew right from wrong, Pomeroy was proven guilty for first degree murder at the age of 16 and sentenced to life in prison. Conclusion Looking at all three killers penchant for mutilating their victims’ bodies, the almost randomness in choosing of their victims, and the childhoods of at least two of the killers, mental trauma sustained during adolescence played a large part in the decline into becoming killers where they took the atrocities they viewed or had been done to them and focused them on their victims as a form of control and improper coping. Unfortunately, in the case of Jack the Ripper, we cannot look into his childhood and compare it to that of Pomeroy or Haigh, but we can deduce that with his choosing of female prostitutes and his horrific mutilation of them, he was traumatized as a child by his mother whether it was because she herself was a prostitute and he often saw her in-coitus with her customers or his mother was extremely controlling like that of the mother of Ed Gein, and after her death, possibly caused by him, he started reaching out and punishing her over and over again using local pr ostitutes as the subjects of his disdain. Pomeroy’s abuse and actions against his victims were a reflection of his father’s actions upon him that, as a way of control, he chose victims younger and smaller than himself to take control of the situation that he couldn’t at home; in essence, he was abusing himself for not being able to do anything against his own father. Haigh, though having an abusive and extremely volatile childhood, did not kill or choose his victims out of anything other than financial gain. Looking at his case files, we see the pattern that after he gambled away the profits of his previous killings he would then find new ‘prey’ to lure into his killing trap. His attempts at pleading insanity fell through because of his pattern of choosing only wealthy or profitable victims that benefitted him in the end and elevated his status. Applying criminological theory to these serial killers is possible, but narrowing their actions to just one is impossible. Some would say that Pomeroy was showing differential association and he had learned his behavior from his father or that strain could apply to both him and Haigh, though Haigh’s was from a financial stand point rather than from an inability to cope with his father beating him. Jack the Ripper is the only killer who would be difficult to apply any theory to with as little as we know of him or his childhood. References David Lester, P. (1995). Serial Killers: The Insatiable Passion. Philadelphia: Charles Press Publishers, Inc. Fox, J. A., & Levin, J. (2005). Extreme Killing: Understanding Serial and Mass Murder. Thousand Oaks, London, New Delhi: Sage Publications, Inc. Holmes, R. M., & Burger, J. D. (1988). Serial Murder. London: Sage Publications, Inc. John Haigh-Acid Bath Killer. (n.d.). Retrieved from horrorfind.com: http://usersites.horrorfind.com/home/horror/bedlambound/library/haigh.html Jones, R. (2010). Jack The Ripper: History, Victims, Letters, Suspects. Retrieved from Jack The Ripper History: http://www.jack-the-ripper.org/ Pomeroy, J. (2002). Autobiography of Jesse H. Pomeroy. Retrieved from http://kobek.com: http://kobek.com/autobiography.pdf UK, A. (2005-2011). Bibliography- John Haigh: The Acid bath Murderer on Crime and Investigation Network. Retrieved from CRIME FILE – Famous criminal: John Haigh: The Acid Bath Murderer : http://www.crimeandinvestigation.co.uk/crime-files/jo hn-haigh-the-acid-bath-murderer/biography.html Wilhiem, R. (2010, August 7). Jesse Pomeroy: â€Å"Boy Fiend†. Retrieved from Murder By Gaslight: http://murderbygasslight.blogspot.com/2010/08/jesse-pomeroy-boston-boy-fiend.html

четверг, 29 августа 2019 г.

Favorite television show ( Beverly Hills 90210) Essay

Favorite television show ( Beverly Hills 90210) - Essay Example However, they were balanced with fun, friendship, family affection, and group bonding. The main characters were the Walsh twins Brenda and Brandon, Kelly, Dylan, Steve, David, and Andrea. It all started when Brenda and Brandon’s family transferred from Minneapolis to California. From there, it was an exciting roller coaster ride in the lives of these rich teenagers. What I liked best was the love triangle between Brenda, Kelly, and Dylan. Brenda was played by Shannen Doherty while Kelly was played by Jennie Garth. Both girls had different but charming personalities. Dylan was played by Luke Perry who seemed to be a typical guy who can get into a flirtatious fling with a blonde like Kelly while he was still in a relationship with Brenda. This seemed to have highlighted how teenagers tend to get too serious with boy-girl relationships at times and end up getting deeply hurt. From here, I learned that physical attraction is less important compared with establishing a relationship with the opposite that is based on friendship and mature love. On the other hand, Beverly Hills 90210 also presented the experimentation that is typical of individuals in this developmental stage. The characters tried smoking, drinking, heavy petting, drugs and other wild adventures. In one episode that showed their prom night the girls Kelly, Donna, and Brenda sipped too much punch. Donna, the values-oriented adolescent in the group, got really drunk after the event. In the meantime, when Brenda returned from her trip to Paris she started to indulge in smoking. Dylan, the typical cool guy, battled with his drinking sprees. After 10 seasons, Beverly Hills 90210 ended but the memories will always be a significant part of the teenage years of those who watched the show. Meanwhile, the commercials on television that were shown during the air time of Beverly Hills 90210 focused on

среда, 28 августа 2019 г.

Course Design Coursework Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3000 words

Course Design - Coursework Example Following all the instructions as I have spelled out in either the assignments or in term papers is also important in order to do well in this course. Attendance is also a MUST and every student is expected to observe this without fail. As stipulated in the institution’s policy every student is expected to observe and maintain a high level of diligence while attending the classes. The course requires a lot of research and students are encouraged to work in groups to conduct the stipulated research and make the best inferences from the research conducted. Students are also encouraged to enjoy the learning experience and link the studies to their daily activities and situations to maximize on the learning objectives of this course. It is my belief that the students are well versed with the technological advancements that have been propagated by East Asia in the recent past. East Asia is leading in the amounts of products manufactured per year and therefore they are able to boost their economies accordingly. Am also assuming that every person has gone through the pre-requisite units before taking up this unit and therefore you are all well-versed with the background information and skills to pursue and take the unit. Research is an essential part of this course and I am assuming that all of you have learnt the research methods and are equipped with the skills to conduct a conclusive research on this course. I will facilitate the learning and give you ample knowledge on the unit so that you can take up and conduct the research on your own since I believe the best learning method is through involving the students in the learning process thereby making it more student oriented. Omvedt, G., Kelkar, G., & Asian Institute of Technology. (1995).  Gender and technology: Emerging visions from Asia. Bangkok, Thailand: Gender and Development

вторник, 27 августа 2019 г.

Human Resource Management Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3000 words - 2

Human Resource Management - Essay Example In a holistic picture, performance management strives to improve overall processes; achieve continually improving results; and continuously develop resources and effective leadership; it also aims at sustaining employee motivation and commitment. As Cooper (2004) explains, performance measurement can help organisations to demonstrate their value to many types of stakeholders, including the clients and customers, employees and shareholders. The results from performance measurement can help in improving performance further, thereby meeting and even exceeding customer expectations, generating more revenue and profit for the organisation, improving employee satisfaction and morale. However, Colbran Medical Institute does not seem to emphasize customer satisfaction or employee motivation in the real sense. A few effective performance management practices based on theory have been evaluated with respect to situation at Colbran Medical Institute. Benchmarking: Performance measurement is a r ecurring activity, and an essential aspect of performance management. ... The performance appraisal forms at Colbran do not give much evidence of work on benchmarking performance metrics, which further rules out possibilities of effective performance measurement. If performance measurement is only internally focused, then such measurement cannot produce competitive position for the organisation irrespective of its level of performance. Therefore, benchmarking ensures that performance establishes competitiveness and best practice through doing the right things, right first time in the eyes of the end customer (Zaiiri & Leonard, 1994; 81). Performance indicators: At Colbran Medical Institute, performance seems to be measured based on number of goods produced. This is a very generalized approach and tends to ignore many issues that could have occurred during the production process. This process needs to be streamlined in order to provide accurate performance measurement as well as address the issues so that overall productivity can also be improvised. All goa ls that have been benchmarked need to be measurable. For this, the goals need to be converted to measurable indicators. Hatry (2006) asserts that measurement and improvement can be gauged based on specific indicators, and not based on the outcomes. Production units cannot wait until the output is achieved in order to assess performance; in doing so, significant time, effort and money will be lost. Moreover, performance measurement based on outcomes will not consider the gaps or issues that had risen during the production. Therefore, to address these issues, specific outcome indicators or performance indicators need to be assigned to every intended outcome or goal. Performance appraisal system: Performance

понедельник, 26 августа 2019 г.

Chicano studies Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words - 1

Chicano studies - Essay Example It is because political power is gained by having good number of followers. In addition, the voting pattern in the USA was more along the tribal lines thus making the Chicano people unlucky when it comes to national resource allocation. Having a political representative would have helped the Chicanos to develop within their area. Illiteracy was also another factor that significantly contributed to the underdevelopment of the Chicano people in Mexico. It is because they did not have the skills and experience on how to foster their individual development ideas that would help them to prosper to be in par with other communities. Moreover, they suffered because of discrimination from other communities who did not give them room to share or exchange ideas. Lack of adequate resources to the Chicano people made them remain behind in development sector. Lack of technological empowerment is also another area that contributed to the underdevelopment of the Chicanos. At the heart issues, dealing with presentation is the human urge to put things into category things, even other humans. One needed to be black or white, male or female, being an American or a citizen from whichever the country, to able to receive fair treatment in the society. The US racial groups were made up of black, white, indigenous, Asian and other. This meant that there was nowhere the Chicanos could fit in these races. The Us government termed them as Hispanics but was not well received by Latinos since it was not inclusive of everybody and they felt it was just top down ethnic identity. The Chicanos did not want to be identified by these dualisms, which was their biggest problem. In turn, the way that Chicanos represent themselves in a daily life did not correspond to the experience of other groups. Thus, it often results to portrayals that are inaccurate when that particular group does not have control of the way that exhibit those

воскресенье, 25 августа 2019 г.

HSA 535 WK 8 D1 & DB2 Coursework Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

HSA 535 WK 8 D1 & DB2 - Coursework Example For example, the imaging tests include the use of Mammograms and computed tomography scans. Understanding Laboratory tests requires that there is a fact sheet used to keep records for the role of screening and diagnostic laboratory tests. The fact sheets usually contain a list of the common tests done in cancer medicine hence could be used as a reference. Pap and HPV testing are some of the laboratory tests in cancer medicine that patients are likely to get through during their diagnosis and treatment procedures. A fact sheet is used which includes information about cervical cancer screening guidelines which can be used on the patients. There is also the Prostate-Specific Antigen Test that is used as a way of diagnosis of prostate cancer in patients. The fact sheet presents guidelines of the procedure together with the benefits and limitations of the test. These tests are efficient, however, only in the first world countries. Third world countries lack the necessary resources and financing to run cancer screening centers effectively and of a large magnitude. However, the US is a developed country with a well-established means of ensuring affordable health care to all its citizens hence has effective procedures. Prostate cancer is usually more prevalent in patients who are older hence it is advisable that older people go for regular screening. This could reduce the extra costs that would be incurred during treatment because once detected early, there are higher chances of treatment. There are a number of ways to address and communicate to the public about the disease. This can be done by engaging the mass in social media using posts that can target their interests. In this contemporary world, the social media has been very active as a tool of communication. Youths can share ideas and criticize hence gaining more knowledge about the disease. The other way would be through free

суббота, 24 августа 2019 г.

International business Wipro case Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

International business Wipro case - Essay Example There is plenty of available labor for programmers and engineers at low cost in India. This paper provides the answers to three discussion questions. Outsourcing work has become a very popular business strategy in the 21st century. This business tendency began to manifest itself in the latter half of the 20th century. General Electric is a giant company that due to its size has become a bit static and its overhead and operating costs have been on the rise. In order to take corrective action to stop the rising cost from hurting the profitability of the company GE when it started doing business with Wipro in 1989 that the Indian based firm could served as valuable business allied and partner. The company began to outsource a lot of its contracts to Wipro because the company could provide valuable technical assistance at fraction of the cost of doing the same tasks in house. By the late 1990’s the outsourcing of contracts to Indian companies help GE achieve $300 million in savings. These savings allowed to company to become more competitive since lower overall costs meant the company could offer more competitive prices. These types of outsourcing contracts help the US economy instead of hurting it. The general public sometimes thinks that outsourcing is taking jobs away from American Citizens. I guess a simplistic view of the issue would anyone think that since companies such as GE eliminate labor requirements by outsourcing, but the truth of the matter is that outsourcing has saved millions of US jobs by allowing American firms to compete in the global marketplace. When a company out sources certain tasks it lowers its operating costs which enables firm to lower its overall cost structure so that companies such as GE can compete with foreign companies operating in developing nations. Such process improvements allows the manager to fulfill the goal of maximizing shareholder’s wealth (Garrison & Noreen, 2003). As

пятница, 23 августа 2019 г.

Marketing Ethics and Regulations Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Marketing Ethics and Regulations - Essay Example This is besides considering the emergent ones like that of recently AMA’s ethic meant to seek clients’ consent of whether they wish to be receiving promotional emails. Since, they want to settle to the right choice instead of seeming to bombard them with unnecessary and disgusting emails. In addition, this step also ensures marketers uphold the privacy of their respective client with dignity such that unintended persons do not intrude into clients’ privacy. Officers despite holding outside representative posts, they provide guidance in terms of both compliance as well as resolution of varied cases relayed to them. They are charged with the task of imparting staff with the necessary information meant to induce their compliance, which is only through training. Hence, uphold any given firm’s ethics and values, which are essential in delivering services adequately to the intended clients or building of healthy interactions in their working settings. Additionally, they aid in arbitrating conflicts among staff though by employing necessary principles that guide them in how to handle varied cases that involve even top managers. However, execution and compliance to ethics embrace fundamental blocks of the necessary ethics programs. This is in such a way the involved training officer advises the staff to embrace ethics in all their capacities for they are essential in not only ensuring smooth firm’s running but also healthy interactions. Hence, augment the firm’s productivity, which is not the case without adequate observance of theics. One of these issues encompasses staff seeking client’s consent regarding whether they wish to be receiving promotional alerts in their respective emails. Since, mails constitute personal accounts whereby firms in their quest as they undertake varied tasks intended to inform the clients these emails may end up intruded by unintended

Technical Writing Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words - 1

Technical Writing - Essay Example Noted above, the language is used positively because it is not wordy or produced in mass. The point is simply put as its intent is to be used by a student who needs to know where he or she is going on short notice. A minute glance is all a student should need in order to find the desired location. The visual of the map along with the explanation of the symbols is both positive and negative. Positive due to the fact that it gives a student an idea of where things are, but negative because it takes a student longer to learn what the symbols mean. The design of the guide is overall effective, but there is a redundancy in the repeating telephone number at the bottom of each section. If you have any further questions about the Smithville College Campus guide please do not hesitate to contact me. Thank you. Part 2 The tone of the writing changes quite dramatically from the first draft to the final draft. The wordiness amped the situation, drew attention to the negativity that was performed rather than focusing on the solution at hand. Once the extra â€Å"anger and punishment† measures were reduced, the memo became a short and sweet response to the copier situation by bringing attention to the solution. â€Å"I wish therefore to inform all concerned-those who have abused policy or will be abusing it- that their behavior cannot and will not be tolerated† is an excessively wordy sentence. Sam eliminates this by simple stating in his new draft, â€Å"In the past we have not encouraged personnel to use them for such purposes because of the costs involved.† It is clear that the informality is seen in the first draft because Sam’s tone is frustrated and bitter. He is flagging the problem, which makes it worse by making it sound informal. However, by moving past the problem to the solution, he gains formality. He also maintains a level of power by staying out of the problem, i.e. not acting biased, in his final draft when he makes it short. By pr esenting the solution (they will literally pay for their actions), he improves his tactfulness. The website URL: http://www.newyorkcity.com/ is particularly effective through visual, design and language. The pictures are small, but appealing and there aren’t too many of them. The skyline of New York is seen on the very top to indicate the correct website followed by a page to add hotel information, which is inviting. They want to make it easy for the tourists to navigate their website with links to hotels, deals, activities, restaurants, and other attractions. If the pictures do are not what the browser wants, there are links in alphabetical order at the bottom of the page to please everyone. Also, the visuals that are chosen were a design-like action because they show the hottest attractions, i.e. Broadway plays. Also, the descriptions carry no more than two-three sentences to avoid wordiness that would lose the audience. Reference Page Picket, A. N., Laster, A. A., & Staple s, K. E. (2001). Technical English: Writing, Reading, and Speaking (8th ed., pp. 45-46). New York, NY: Addison Wesley

четверг, 22 августа 2019 г.

Categorical imperative Essay Example for Free

Categorical imperative Essay Philosophers usually tend to think and respond in totally different and opposite ways. However, in Glaucon’s challenge, Aristotle, Spinoza, Hume, Kant and Mill agreed that it’s an uncontrollable system of desire. In Glaucon’s challenge he describes three important ideas. The first idea is â€Å"of the nature and origin of unjust, according to the common view of them† (488). The second idea is â€Å"I will show that all men who practice justice do so against their will, of necessity but not as a good† (488). The third idea is â€Å"I will argue that there is reason in this view, for the life of the unjust is after all better far than the life of the just† (488). Each one of these philosophers responded to this challenge similar and different manners. Aristotle believed that to be a good man is to have good morality. In his point of view he sees that morality gives a reason that leads to actions. Artistotle respond toward Glaucon’s challenge is reason guides passion. This makes him an injustice man because he just cares about how to please himself and follow his desire. Spinoza’s idea is emotions have nothing to do with human beings its reasons that guide us. He believed that passion and emotions leads us to be changeable due to how the world around us and not necessarily our knowledge. Reasons give us the opportunity to gain knowledge of life. Spinoza becomes unjust and gives reasons to Glaucon’s challenge. From Hume’s point of view he believed that benevolence makes us social being instead of self interest. Hume’s main concern is sympathy and empathy. Sympathy is the nature of human that makes them human beings. It’s the ability to see feel pity toward other. Empathy is the understanding of pain and happiness of one another. Hume believed that all human are selfish and that their passion guides their reasons. Passion and reasons is not having emotions or feeling pity. Hume’s view is that we should the ability to feel others emotions and understand them. Kant sees that the categorical imperative is the only moral way to act. Categorical imperatives are based on ideals of logic and acts on duty. He believed that if you feel satisfied about something you did, you shouldn’t consider it a reward but rather as a bonus for you. We only do moral things because it’s in fulfill our interest and benefit. Kant responds to Glaucon’s challenge that if the act is immoral, then it cannot be considered into categorical imperative. Mill’s view is that everyone should be satisfied and happy. He believes that everyone should think of the consequences of their actions before deciding to make them. Mill puts others as well as himself into consideration before any action. He doesn’t argue towards or against Glaucon’s challenge, he just cares about his pleasure and others. Each philosopher had his own argument toward Glaucon’s challenge. Their ideas were unjust happiness towards Glaucon’s challenge. Aristotle and Hume had opposite views. Aristotle‘s idea towards the challenge was reason guides passion, where Hume’s idea was passion guides reason. Mill and Kant had the same assumptions. Mill expresses about pleasure and Kant was certain about duty. Mill agrees with Aristotle as well, they believe that happiness is a man’s ambition and human existence. Spinoza is just unjust to the whole idea of the challenge. These philosophers’ ideas were very similar that a man would behave unjust if he had the ring.

среда, 21 августа 2019 г.

Factors that contribute to quality of life

Factors that contribute to quality of life A report by Garavan, Winder and McGee (2001) Health and Social Services for Older People, Consulting Older People on Health and Social Services: A Survey of Use, Experiences and Needs concluded within its findings that older women viewed that they had a low quality of life. Stuart-Hamilton (2000) states that an element within the ageing concept is that men for varying reasons die at a greater rate than women after the age of 70 and that therefore it could be concluded that the ageing experience could be a longer process for women. The elderly population in Ireland is increasing in that according to Connell Pringle (2004) the projected population of older women in 2021 is expected to be between 375,000 and 389,000 which would indicate a rise of over 50 per cent from that in 2002. Ageing can be defined as the process of progressive change in the biological, psychological and social structure of individuals à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦aged 60 or over (Stein and Moritz, 1999;4). According to Greenstein (2006) social research is abstract in general in that the concepts are not easily measured because of the subjectivity of the topics and that a way of gaining a vague measure within the research is to ask the participants their level of satisfaction or dis-satisfaction in relation to the sub-themes. Ageing has a direct biological decline and because of this quality of life has been regarded to be directly linked by the health of the person versus ill-health. But health being defined by the World Health Organisation cited in (Bond and Corner, 2004:2) as a state of complete physical, mental and social wellbeing have resulted in the concept that quality of life is much more complex and varied depending on other factors rather than being traditionally associated solely with health (Bond and Corner, 2004). Definition of Quality of Life Quality of life is not scientifically measureable in that it is very subjective to the individual depending on their experiences of ageing and that the terms well-being and life satisfaction are often used as a means of gaining an insight into the degree a person views that they are experiencing quality of life (Vincent, Phillipson and Downs, 2006). Research has shown that quality of life is subjective to the person, Abrams (1973) cited in (Bond and Corner, 2004:4) defines quality of life as the degree of satisfaction or dissatisfaction felt by people with various aspects of their lives. This literature review will act as a base for a thesis that will explore the views of older women in Cavan as to the factors that contribute to quality of life. The definition of what is quality of life is not easily determined and many authors offer different domains as the priority but in fact the priority will be subjective to what the individual older person measures as the most important aspect to them (Nay and Garratt, 2009). There has been much focus on what is quality of life in recent years in terms of social policies that have in turn directed service provision and providing care that is impacting positively on a persons quality of life according to Vincent et al (2006). Quality of life according to Nay and Garratt (2009) typically measures general health, physical, cognitive, sexual and emotional functioning while also measuring the happiness of the person but it is subjective to the person in that what one person views as important may differ from another person. Factors such as employment, social networks, social activities, self-identity, financial security and cognitive and physical function are considered to impact on quality of life (Renwick et al (2003) cited in Nay and Garratt, 2009). Also that quality of life in relation to older people is often used as an assessment measure of whether a service is supporting the needs of its clients in that it is not just a measure of quantity of life but that the life has quality within it so that the outcomes of supports or services are impacting positively on quality of life (Nay and Garratt, 2009). That measurement of quality of life is sometimes measured within one domain such as general health while others measure cover several domains. But in general the largest measurement of quality of life is the concept that it is directly connected to the health of the person and their satisfaction regarding their health (Nay and Garratt, 2009). Therefore Health Related Quality of Life is a term that is often used by service providers as a directive for their care provision (Nay and Garratt, 2009:352). Focusing quality of life within the domains of general health can create what is called the disability paradox in that older people rather than viewing their decline in health as an indicator of low quality of life that the expectation of inevitable physical and health decline has resulted in other factors such as social networks and their overall well-being as the domains used to measure their view of quality of life and that it is presumptuous to view that general health is the sole measure of quality of life (Carr and Higginson, (2001) cited in Nay and Garratt, 2009:353). According to Vincent et al (2006) people will view health, social networks and standard of living as important factors within their lives but that the importance of the factors will vary as the person proceeds along their life course. Research sources have shown the complexity in defining the key factors within quality of life and the initial reading by the researcher highlighted that the many elements could be loosely grouped within three sub-themes in relation to quality of life: (1) physical factors general health and physical mobility, (2) economic factors income, and standard of living and (3) social structure factors social networks, cultural environment but further reading has emphasised that even though these concepts are applicable that expanding them further will allow greater exploration and description. In that according to Stuart-Hamilton (2000) that focusing on a narrow of domains could result in some domains appearing more important within the research than they possibly are. That domains such as health, income, and environment have an impact on a persons life satisfaction in general and are all inter-related but that the personality of the person will also impact on the how they measure their life satisfaction (Stuart-Hamilton, 2000). Walker (2005) suggests that as quality of life has no distinct key factors that most research focuses on health, environment, employment and relationships. That the environment has within it the physical, social, cultural and economic elements that can either enhance or reduce quality of life. Health has within it general health and the physical, mental and emotional health of the person. Employment covers income and can be related to the wealth of the person. The key concepts with regard to quality of life as suggested by Hughes (1990) cited in Bond and Corner (2004) are: (1) Physical environmental factors which include quality of accommodation, access to public services such as shops, transport and other public services such as libraries and other leisure outlets. (2) Social environmental factors which include family members, social networks, the level of support obtainable from family and social networks and the levels of leisure activities that the person is involved in. (3) Socio-economic factors which include the general standard of living, the income available to the person and other means of wealth. (4) Cultural factors which include the age, class, gender and religious leaning of the person. (5) Health factors which include general health, mental well-being of the person and physical mobility. (6) Personality factors which include whether the person is an optimist or pessimist, will all impact on the subjectivity by the person on their measure of life satisfaction. (7) Autonomy factors which include the degree that a person has the capability to make their own decisions. (8) Satisfaction subjective to the individual the level of satisfaction over all the areas of their life that they judge as important. There is no definitive on what factors contribute to quality of life, therefore (Arnold (1991); McDowell Newell (1996) cited in Nay and Garratt 2009:355) suggest that the measurement of quality of life should include objective indices such as economic circumstances and housing, those that measure subjective aspects such as morale, happiness and life satisfaction and those that contain both objective and subjective components, such as health related quality of life But according to Bond and Corner (2004) the subjective and objective aspects are interrelated an illustration of this being in that the objective element of health related quality of life could be subjectively not important to the older person who as of yet has not experienced any health issues that they view as impacting on their quality of life. There is a view according to Stuart-Hamilton (2000) within society that the busier the life of an older person the more quality of life that they have. That the subjective measure of life satisfaction can be directly linked to the activities that an older person participates in that give a meaning to their life can be directly linked to one of the theories of ageing Activity Theory (Bond and Corner, 2004). That an indicator of life satisfaction can be the degree that an older person maintains activities within their community, in that the more activities indicate higher levels of life satisfaction. Bond and Corner (2004) disagree and agree with elements of this theory in that they state that although social networks and activities can maintain and support physical and mental health such as reducing depression that ageing has a biological element that can impact on health and reduces an older persons social network as confidantes become ill or eventually die and that it is wrong to e xpect an older person to engage in levels of activities to the degree that they did when they were much younger. Stuart-Hamilton (2000) suggests the concept that engaging in activities for the sake of them does not allow the older person the ability to make their own choices and that within the provision of services for older people that by assuming that any activity is better than none could be directly linked to the application of Disengagement theory whereby it is believed that the older person accepts that death is eventual and therefore prepares for death by choosing to dis-engage from society and that also it has a function of reinforcing the expected process of ageing in Western Society. Personality: And its link to health: One element within a persons personality is that it will relate to their choices with regard to their lifestyle such as diet, exercise all which can aid the life expectancy of a person but what if the persons personality has within it a negative outlook will this impact on how they view the ageing process and the biological decline and that rather than trying to improve their physical well-being by a healthier lifestyle that they approach death and illness as unavoidable and then reduce their activities and disengage from society (Stuart-Hamilton, 2000). Link between psychological well-being and personality and health: Research has shown a link between physical well-being and mental well-being in that according to Whitbourne (1987) cited in Stuart-Hamilton (2000) people that exercised and had levels of what they measured as physical well-being had a general feeling of overall well-being but therefore could it be said that people that have a poor physical well-being are more less satisfied with life (Stuart-Hamilton, 2000). Personality: Preference for lifestyle link: That the personality of a person whether they are an introvert or extrovert will also impact on the lifestyle they choose in that if they are an introvert it will probably follow that as they are older that they will not seek out social activities (Stuart-Hamilton, 2000). Disengagement theory Cumming and Henry, (1961) as cited in Stuart-Hamilton, (2000) suggest that as people get older that they automatically start to disengage from society in degrees as if in preparation for death and this is also supported by society in that the structures have come to expect this disengagement. This disengagement according to Stuart-Hamilton (2000) can be as a result of many factors such as illness, loss of family members, low income that does not provide for activities and also their personality type in that what if they are introvert or extrovert and that disengagement theory has been criticised for the overall image that older people are cutting ties with society in preparation for inevitable death. According to Maddox (1970) cited in Stuart-Hamilton, (2000) this disengagement may simply be a an aspect of the persons personality and that it is not an element of ageing at all. Merriman (1984) cited in Stuart-Hamilton (2000) also criticises disengagement theory an d states that ageing policies within many countries encourage that older people have an high profile within their community. Activity theory was proposed as a way of combating disengagement theory according to Stuart-Hamilton (2000) in that it was proposed that the more activities that an older person engaged in the better their life satisfaction. But this does not allow for choices for the older person and what if their personality is such that enforced activities is wrong (Stuart-Hamilton, 2000). Issues related to measuring Quality of Life There are issues relating to the measurement of quality of life in that the domains are both subjective and objective. The objective indices, such as economic circumstances and housing; those that measure purely subjective aspects, such as morale, happiness, and life satisfaction; and those that contain both objective and subjective components, such as Health Related Quality of Life measures (Arnold, (1991) cited in Nay and Garratt, 2009:355). Vincent et al (2006) agrees that there are both objective and subjective domains but unlike Nay and Garratt (2009) attributes social factors within the objective domains by stating that the number of social networks that a person has is objectively measureable but that the quality of these social networks is a subjective element. Likewise Vincent et al (2006) states that health although measureable in terms of whether an illness was present and therefore objectively measureable that the domain is also subjective in that the importance of health to quality of life will depend on what the individual views health to be. The view by Vincent et al (2006) that the meaning of what is health is subjectively defined by the individual is illustrated by the disability paradox as per (Carr and Higginson, (2001) cited in Nay and Garratt, 2009:353). In that older people rather than viewing their decline in health as an indicator of low quality of life in that the expectation of inevitable physical and health decline have resulted in other factors such as social networks as the domains used to measure their view of quality of life and that it is therefore presumptuous to view that general health is the sole measure of quality of life (Nay and Garratt, 2009). Anderson Bury (1988) cited in Vincent et al (2006) state that people can adjust to illness and develop coping skills so that the illness no longer factors as a significant domain to the person and this would therefore affect the measurement of health within quality of life research. Health and physical functioning as an objective measure in the domains of quality of life are mentioned continually and can in its simplest form according to Nay and Garratt (2009) be that if a person has a condition or range of illnesses be considered to have a low quality of life. But what if the adjustments suggested by Anderson Bury (1988) cited in Vincent et al (2006) were accommodations such as medication or lifestyle changes and were to adjust how the illness impacts on the person could it then be considered that although the health status remains the same but that the accommodations have resulted in the meaning of what is health to not be defined by illness or physical functioning. Therefore in relation to this research the aim is to explore the subjectivity of what the participant views as health and if any accommodations have impacted on the meaning of what is health. Economic factors such as standard of living are objectively measured according to Nay and Garratt (2009) in that income can be an indicator of a standard of living but according to Vincent et al (2006) this objective measure has to be balanced by the subjective measure of what is the expectation of a standard of living and according to Stuart Hamilton (2000) will be directly linked to past experiences of standard of living in that if a person has in the past had a particular standard of living the subjective measure will be linked to whether the same standard of living was expected by the person or not. Therefore in relation to this research with regard to economic factors as a domain within quality of life previous standard of living and expectations of standard of living as an older person and direct experience will be explored. According to Vincent et al (2006) quality of life has no scientific measurement that can define the exact objective degree of quality of life because there are so many variations of what is quality of life. That the experience of life may support or contradict what the objective measure describes as quality of life. Qualitative and Quantitative Methods: Quantitative methods are often the means of gaining information regarding what is quality of life but using quantitative methods will not allow for the subjectivity of individual experiences and their views on quality of life. That using structured questionnaires still conform to the researchers view of quality of life and does not allow for the exploration of the views of the older person. That these approaches do not allow for the symbolic nature and meaning of life to the individual (Vincent et al, 2006:158). Taking the view that as the person proceeds along the life course that their view of life will remain the same. Stuart Hamilton (2000) suggests that the life course Another challenge in relation to measuring quality of life and with particular reference to older people is that there can be such differences between each person in that as they age the experience in relation to physical, social, emotional, sexual and cognitive functioning is not as homogenous an experience and that these differing experiences will impact on what factors are key to quality of life (Stewart et al (1996) cited in Nay and Garratt, 2009). The setting that the older person lives within will impact greatly on the factors that are viewed as contributors to quality of life in that if a person is living within a residential unit that this group orientated setting will have different routines and rules in comparison to an older person living within community in general, and that for those within a residential setting that research has shown that dignity, self-determination and participation and accommodation of resident needs were considered to be the factors that impacted on quality of life (Nay and Garratt, 2009:357). That measurement of quality of life needs to consider the domains that are considered contributors within quality of life and that how the research is conducted in that the way that questions are asked can create a bias. As already stated biological decline is a natural aspect of ageing therefore if an indicator of quality of life were to be considered the level of physical functioning it would be inappropriate to ask the participant if they were physically able to do as much and for as long as they used to when they were younger and that this would not be a realistic indicator of quality of life according to Nay and Garratt, (2009). Measurement tools are World Health Organisation Quality of Life Instrument (whoqol) (Skevington et al 2004), cited in Nay and Garratt, 2009. Conclusion This literature review has explored the concept of quality of life and that the factors that are considered to contribute to quality of life are varied and can contain subjective and objective components and that older people in order to measure quality of life should not be viewed as a homogenous group.

вторник, 20 августа 2019 г.

The state of human nature

The state of human nature Assignment The State of Human Nature The conflict on the ideas between Thomas Hobbes and Rousseau in terms of the definition of human nature is seen like a state without social structure. In his book â€Å"The Leviathan†, Hobbes wrote that all condition of the people is one in misery wherein we are compelled to act violently and compete with each others to be able to attain their desired goals in life (Green 1993). As such, men are naturally violent and greedy wherein if they want something, they will do their best to obtain such thing. Thus, the result is that men becomes more inclined towards giving importance to themselves rather than to the general good which they sometimes try to portray. Moreover, as for Jean Jacques Rousseau, men are naturally peaceful and only wishes to live like that as this is what is important in his life. The claim of this paper is that men are naturally violent and we tend to be defensive on things that usually affect our interest. The human nature presented in The Leviathan is based on a society where there is no government to administer the people. As such, people tend to become more aggressive protecting their interest and will not be in accord to anybody that will intend to destroy such interest. The paper presents two types of government which are democratic and authoritarian rule. The way human nature will be influenced will be discussed on each regime to show that we humans cannot live peacefully without the intervention of the government. The Human Nature Philosophy As Human nature ideas grew, philosophers would try to integrate Human nature teaching with government and society. The result threatened the very core of different ideas. Today, we see increased pressure to water down orthodoxy and integrate it with current philosophy and teaching (Schopoenhauer 2012). Much of what passes for teachings today is nothing but different diverse perspectives that states we possess the divine and all we must do is realize that secret. But human nature is not about humans becoming something which they originally are not. Two types of government will be presented which somehow affects human nature. Democratic government in affecting human nature A large number of nations have already adopted a democratic government. A democratic government aims to improve the freedom of the people. The structures of the government and the frameworks serve as guide to the acts of the people. The government, the constitution and the system are the composition for executing the principle within a country. The government as the structure, the constitution as the framework and the system as the means if implementation. The government has proven itself on serving its people at its best. The roles are fulfilled well and it has developed further to the changing times (Dickson 2014). However, the criticism on its process as not following the majority rule questions the democratic principle that the majority should be followed. Due to the idea that the people are influenced by the society, the idea of majority rule is associated with basic principles that could touch human rights to also protect the minority. With this belief, the diversity of the peo ple, which follows pluralism, is observed. The constitution that serves as the fundamental law of the land was amended in accordance of the developing times. Basically, the constitution is the declaration of rights of the individuals and the principles of the state. Rooted from the ideas of English Magna Carta and the principle of the balance of power, the constitution continues to be the guidelines for the state to assure that human rights are being considered. The democratic notion is seen on how it gives freedom to the people. For instance, the press shows how freedom is given importance in a nation. To determine the different rights of the people the government usually use the media. As an effective medium, television, newspaper, radio and the internet are the popular ways to express public opinion. It is use to educate as it gives information to the people. It gives the people a sense of political involvement and socialization which is good because it shows that the people participate in political issues. It serves as the watchdog on government activities ensuring that the rights are observed. However, as the basic principle on freedom of expression is applied, certain laws are imposed to observe responsible use of media. It is also important that human rights violations are being watched so that proper authorities will know it. Schmitter (2010) states that the consequences of democracy brings about significant changes in power relation s, properly rights and social status within a society. Human nature can be influenced by what the people hear and do within the society. Moreover, despite of the success of this type of government, some criticizes it. Most experts on divided societies and constitutional engineering broadly agree that deep societal divisions pose a grave problem for democracy, and that it is therefore generally more difficult to establish and maintain democratic government (Lijphart 2004). Different factions in the government results to different views within the society. The separation in the nation somehow shows the divisiveness in the system that can affect the decisions made by the country, but somehow it is useful for an atmosphere of competition and improvement between the parties. Democracy is a richly textured and complicated concept and scholars have often argued the manner of its measurement. There are only a few sets of information on political regimes that can be deployed as the foundation for the exploration of issues on democratization. Most significant are the data on civil liberties and political rights developed by Freedom House, a US nongovernmental organization covering the period of 1972 to 2011 and the project known as Polity IV which presents data on political regime transitions and characteristics, with information on every country that can be trace way back in 1946. Both sources of data have numerical scores that specify where a country belongs either in a dictatorship or in a liberal democracy. Authoritarian Rule influence on Human Nature This government is one that imposes authoritarian rules are seen on countries in the Arab nation. Hybrid regimes in the Arab world are considered to be electoral authoritarian, competitive authoritarian and partly-free authoritarian. Iraq, Kuwait and Lebanon are often considered as regimes that are democratizing with their hybrid nature going on the side of complete democracy. However, several obstacles will be faced by these countries for them to evolve into stable and full-fledged democratic systems. For instance, Lebanon was a democracy with free elections from 1972 to 1975. Despite of the presence of democratic institutions within Lebanon, the possibility of significant change is inhibited because these institutions have a framework of sharing their powers. Another typical example of a hybrid regime is Kuwait that applied political liberalization in the year 1992 and was praised as a classic instance of the manner states can remain democratize and be stable gradually (Vannelli 20 01). However as of today, the authorities that were elected by the people had too little authority for the political system to be considered as a democracy. Specifically, there are still institutions in Kuwait that do not respect popular rule and hinders the cause of political liberalization. The family of al-Sabah holds the authority to rule while the Congress plays the role of a watchdog and with the limited authority to restrain the cabinet. What makes such authoritarian countries become firm and resolute is because this type of regime goes with the culture of the country. The people within the said country are disciplined and properly follow the law. These kinds of people are usually found within pure authoritarian countries in the Arab world include Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, Bahrain, Morocco, Qatar, Oman and Jordan. Bahrain, Saudi Arabia, Qatar and the UAE are considered by experts to be â€Å"dynastic monarchies† which means that the rules of the family govern instead of a sole individual and power is distributed among the members of the family. Succession to the throne is normally decided by the members of the family and a ruler can be removed from the position if he or she loses the allegiance or faith of the family. In Arab monarchies that are nondynastic like Morocco, Oman and Jordanthe monarch can select his successor and has absolute power over the government. In these countries, the members of the royal family could rule at the pleasure of the reigning monarch. Different theorists states that due to the strict policies implemented within the country, the people does not resort to violence and they only do this in a collective manner. The major explanations can be grouped into four aspects: those related to the cultural requirements of a democracy, those that pinpoint the location of the Arab world, those that involve foreign policy and those that highlight the significance of government agency. Scholars referring to the lack of cultural requirements to achieve democracy in the Arab world can be traced to the Arab or Muslim cultures that run contrary to the values associated with democracy. In particular, individual rights and participatory government are unknown to the political tradition of the Muslim world because the Islam religion considers God as the sole authority and that society must be guided by the laws of God. As a consequence, there is no legal basis for a representative government, civil codes or the mere sovereignty of a man. Meanwhile, the prevalence of oil in the Arab world significantly pushes authoritarianism since oil revenues goes directly to the government that allows it to distribute sizeable patronage to the population without the need for taxation. This rentier effect allows the public to enjoy quality public services and goods without the need for taxation that hinders their demands for reform within the government. Conclusion: In terms of the way people respond to their environment, it is but necessary to note that the government where one lives in usually affects the nature of the people. This is because the rules force people to become disciplined or to become free and do whatever they want. The philosophy had given much to the shaping of human history, and one important part of it is the contribution of well known Human nature thinkers. The main ideas were focused on men and spirit, wherein it is based from different aspects of society such as the ethical norms of humanity (Rogoff 2003). The flourishment of these teachings had an influence to the warring nations on that time, the thinking of the people and the decisions of leaders from different nations. These schools of thoughts contributed to the development of each of them, making each of the schools competent sources of philosophies and teachings.

понедельник, 19 августа 2019 г.

Euthanasia: The Right Way to Kill :: Free Essay Writer

In the recent years there has been a particular case that has brought the minds of Christians as well as non-believers alike to examine the importance of a person’s life. Apart from the ongoing debate regarding abortion as a criminal act or a womanly right, there has been another issue that has been dormant in this nation that some would argue causes the same weight as that of abortion. Euthanasia is defined in Webster’s dictionary as â€Å"the act or method of causing death painlessly, so as to end suffering; advocated by some as a way to deal with persons dying of incurable, painful diseases.† The only difference between this definition and that of â€Å"murder† is that euthanasia is a legal course, prompted by pre-disposed criteria. Are we at liberty or right, regardless of the circumstance, to willingly take a godly role, and advocate an ungodly act?   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  One of the problems I find in Western American Society is the notion that everything is given to us when and how we want it. We (and for arguments sake, let’s include Christians in here) have moved away from the â€Å"patiently-waiting† to the â€Å"eagerly-desperate† lifestyles more commonly known as â€Å"Fast Food.† In a world of credit cards, EZ Pass, Gasoline Quick Scans (mechanisms of the sort), French Fries, ATM’s, etc., it is easy for us to comprehend how even our spiritual views on many issues have taken the same approach that our hectic and fast-paced lives have evolved to.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  It should be of no surprise that if God made the importance of life and it’s preservation one of the commandments (Thou Shalt Not Kill, Exodus 20:13 KJV), than it is clear that though the situation may (to some) merit this act, God would have already handled it as well. I can more easily comprehend this possibility by the life and ministry of Jesus. Before ascending to heaven, Jesus told the disciples that they would do greater things. By looking at Jesus’ ministry, we see that he had the power and authority [given to him by God] to heal the sick and raise the dead. This being said, I’ll argue that the problem at hand is not merely the incorrect belief that euthanasia is circumstance-driven excuse to end the life of a person due to their physical condition. To me, the greater picture lies deeper within the fabric of society. It is written in the bible that without faith it is impossible to please God.

воскресенье, 18 августа 2019 г.

Digital Technology: TV’s Next Step :: Television Media Essays

Digital Technology: TV’s Next Step Digital technology is a recent innovation to sweep through America. It has already become the standard for music purchases, and with the use of DVDs, it is now the preferred way to watch a movie in the home. Cell phones were once primarily analog, but now most service areas are digital. These changes came from the market place wanting better sound, picture, and more reliable signals. This is in stark contrast to television, because its change from analog to digital has been brought on by the FCC enacting regulations. The market place should be excited and the change, but not just for better picture quality. Though the FCC may be forcing the change in television, the market place should embrace the changes and even be excited about them. Picture quality is not the only difference between digital and analog television. The FCC has several reasons to switch to digital. A digital signal offers better sound than an analog signal. With analog, you are only able to get two channels of sound. Digital offers you the same 5.1 channels of digital surround sound you hear in movie theatres. The combination of better sound and picture is enough to make many want to upgrade, but there are more reasons. Digital television also allows for more bandwidth with the use of MPEG-2 technology. This is a way of compressing the information and using less bandwidth. It can reduce the number of bits by about 55 to 1, allowing more space on the spectrum. The practical use of this is multicasting. Although how this will be used is still to be determined. It is likely networks will run multiple programs in standard format during the day and use HDTV during primetime. Naturally, both analog and digital signals lose strength over long distances. With analog signals, this causes a horrible picture filled with static. This differs drastically with a digital signal. The signal still weakens over distance, but it makes no difference in quality of picture or sound. As long as the television receives the signal, no matter how weak it is, the picture and sound will be clear. Obviously, this could be a potential problem for cable and satellite providers. Many consumers will no longer have to pay monthly fees to have an acceptable picture.

суббота, 17 августа 2019 г.

The Green Sea Turtle

The Green Sea Turtle is one of only 7 species of sea turtle, with all being in danger of becoming extinct. It is one of the largest sea turtles and has the highest migratory area. This report will cover from its physical description through to the specific role that it plays in the environment, as well as solutions to bring the creature to a least concern of extinction. Animal Profile: The Green Sea Turtle’s carapace (shell) has a mottled brown top, with it’s under shell a creamy white and this shell is often covered in algal growth. Its flesh is a light green and its head is relatively small, when compared to its body. Contrasting to the other sea turtles, it can’t put its head into its shell. The turtle’s front members are flipper-like, which propel it through the water at great speeds when needed. When hatchlings emerge from their eggs, they will weigh about 1 ounce, with the carapace only 2 inches long. Sub-adults will have a weight of approximately 200-350 pounds and will grow over 2 and a half feet long. Whereas the fully grown adult can weigh up to 400 pound (317. kg) and its carapace will expand to 5 feet long. The Green Sea Turtle is a reptile, and it comes from the family of Cheloniidae. The average lifetime expectancy for the Green Sea Turtle usually lasts more than 80 years in the wild, and it takes over 25 years for them to reach sexual maturity. One of the only differences between the 2 sexes, is that the males have longer and thicker tails than the females, and they also have one single mating claw, on the back of the fore flippers.

Homosexuality in Football Essay

Chapter One: Introduction: Addressing Homophobia in Football * Introduction should just give a brief idea of what work is going to be about so not much detail * Outline your argument – footballers affect society so a lack of homosexual players is also bound to affect the way it is portrayed * Talk about the problems surrounding football – i.e. racism, sexism. What is different about homophobia? * Why is homophobia a problem in football? Why is it taboo? * Talk about programmes enforced to help combat it; i.e. just mention Stonewall, different programmes etc * Outline the different chapters you will be writing in the diss: i.e. I will be looking at (describe chapter 2) Only needs to be a page long, maybe a little longer. Basically outline your argument and refer back to your question, mention problems in football – why homophobia is taboo / big problem, talk about programmes (briefly) and then outline what you’ll be talking about in each chapter. FINALLY sa y at the end what you hope to conclude – i.e. homophobia is a big problem, it does affect society, what can be done? I intend to explore homosexuality within the footballing world, and how, if at all, its representative’s views on it affect those of societies. Football is Britain’s national sport, engrained into every aspect of our culture, and as such players are role models that transcend all classes, colours and creeds; so why do such a minute percentage feel it is a safe environment in which to be openly homosexual? Are the individuals involved simply inherently homophobic, or are there more deep-rooted explanations? I will be looking in chapter two at masculinity and where homosexuality lies within it, focusing particularly on the theories surrounding footballs role in reproducing a hegemonic masculine environment. Over the last 20-30 years it has become more fashionable to explore the varying moulds of masculinity, and I will observe footballs relationship with these developments. The differences on and off the pitch are also of relevance, and can be scrutinised easily due to th e massive interest in, and thus coverage of, footballing culture. Chapter three explores possible reasons behind the lack of openly homosexual professional footballers today and throughout history, primarily using player interviews and concentrating on the case of Justin Fashanu, the first professional British player to reveal their homosexuality to the public. I will also discuss the issue as an international problem, which is not isolated to Britain and the Premier League. Finally, an evaluation of footballers as role models in our culture at present forms the basis of chapter four – how exactly do their views affect society’s’? ADD IN WHEN WRITTEN CHAPTER The industry has managed to overcome various other serious issues, such as racism and sexism, so what is it doing to combat homophobia? Since many efforts by the F.A. to address homophobia have been deemed superficial, does the F.A. even consider it as serious a problem as the aforementioned problems? The Stonewall organisation in particular has completed extensive research into the issues surrounding homophobia in football, interviewing players and fans alike, and even setting up the first gay football club. How successful has this been in drawing attention to the problem so clearly rife in the modern game, and what else can be done to encourage the changes so desperately required to come into fruition? I hope to discover through my research the extent to which homophobia runs in football, and by whom it is considered a problem. I am also intrigued to see how the public perceive the current situation, and how it alongside general footballing culture has influenced them, if at all.