среда, 22 мая 2019 г.
How Did Hindenburg Undermine German Democracy in 1925-33? Essay
Paul von Hindenburg was the second president of the Weimar Republic, who had led Germ some(prenominal) through economic successfulness of the Golden Age nether Stresemann (1924-9), but also the series of severe crisis ranging from nationwide political revolts (1919-23) to worldwide economic depression (1929), that have influenced the Reichstag as a whole. For the first five years after taking office, Hindenburg fulfilled his duties of office with considerable dignity and decorum. Nevertheless, many cl beat that with the election of chairperson Hindenburg, German res publica was doomed. There is a certain degree of truth in such(prenominal) statement, for Hindenburg had played a considerable role in undermining the German democracy in his later presidential years, through appointing Adolf Hitler (1933) chancellor of Germany in spite of his awareness of Hitlers dictatorial qualities, and invoking Article 48 under which the g overnment no longer functioned democratically.Hindenburgs biggest misinterpretation was to make Adolf Hitler chancellor of Germany in 1933, for this meant that an era of German elections and parliamentary life had come to an end, and an era of dictatorship and terror was soon to emerge. As the following exhibit proves, Hindenburg was clearly aware that large-minded position to Hitler would be a vital step in the downfall of the Weimar Germany. In 1932, although the number of seats for the national socialists in Reichstag poisonous from 230 to 197 , it good-tempered remained to be the largest Party. Von Papen therefore offered to bring Hitler into his new government by giving him the Vice-Chancellorship. However, Hitler was not tempted and reiterated his desire for the Chancellorship, and would accept nothing less as his aim was complete power, not the sharing of power. When Von Papen put these demands to Hindenburg, and offered a way for Hitler as Chancellor, Hindenburg refused, and Papen, unable to command a majority in the Reichsta g had to resign. In consequence, Hitler told Hindenburg he would mark a presidential Cabinet, one whose powers would derive, not from the will or votes of parliament, but from the Presidency. Hindenburg could not accept these extraordinary terms and brought his negotiations with Hitler to an end, instructing his State Secretary to write to HitlerThe President of the Reich thanks you for your willingness to become head of a presidential Cabinet.He considers, however, that he would not be doing his duty to the German people if he handed over his Presidential powers to the addresser of aParty which has repeatedly emphasized its exclusiveness, and which has taken up a predominantly negative attitude. In these circumstances, the Present of the Reich cannot help fearing that a presidential Cabinet conducted by you would inevitably lead to a Party dictatorship, bringing in its train of bitter aggravation of the conflicts within the German peopleHindenburg and then turned to a former arm y officer, General von Schleicher and asked him to take over the Chancellorship. Some may argue that the reason for Hindenburgs dislike of Hitler was rather due to Hitlers face-to-face backgrounds (he was Austrian). However, through Hitlers overly ambitious speeches and rebellious actions against the government shown in the prior years, (e.g. the Munich Beer Hall Pusch 1923) it is certain that Hindenburg was aware giving complete power to Hitler was not a clever idea, as it may inevitably lead to a Party dictatorship and a chaos within the nation. Nonetheless, he ended up giving power to the aggressive leader of the biggest Party of the Reich, undermining the German democracy.If it wasnt Hindenburg who in 1933 became convinced that there was no longer an alternative to Hitler and appointed him the Chancellor due to his advisers who without exception favored a government of national concentration under Hitlers leadership and the rumors that Schleicher was planning a putsch against H indenburg, the vast human and ecological destruction of the 20th century could have been avoided. Through Hindenburgs decision of appointing Hitler chancellor, Hitler came to power legally and headed his countrys government. In correspondence to Hindenburgs prediction, Hitler almost immediately forced the German legislature to give up its authority and made himself absolute dictator of Germany, taking the title of Fuhrer in 1934. Due to Hindenburgs decision and his failing attempt to make Hitler his puppet, the Third Reich lasted only 12 years and yet in those few years the history of Germany and the world changed under the influence of one man.Prior to Hitlers gain of power, Hindenburgs usage of Article 48 during his presidential years was also a significant factor which undermined German democracy. In 1930 Hindenburg appointed Bruning chancellor and agreed to sign presidential emergency decrees under Article 48 if the government faced opposition in the Reichstag. Therefore under Hindenburgs governing and Brunings chancellorship the government no longer functioned democraticallyas Bruning relied on the presidents emergency powers to push through the legislation he desired. Article 48 gave the president special rights to issue emergency legislation, but the Reichstag could disapprove the presidents measure later. The president, in turn, could dissolve the Reichstag and call new elections. Thus, Hindenburgs policies were collapsing the German democracy as he represented an abuse of the constitutions emergency powers, which were initially meant to protect the democratic functioning of the constitution, not to disrupt it. Moreover, Hindenburgs failing energy and senility (he was 85 when he got reelected in 1932) made him an easy prey to his rightist advisors as he was heavily influenced by those who surrounded him and was open to their suggestions.Thus the extremist parties were profiting simultaneously from Hindenburgs otioseness and the economic crisis which made enormous gains for the Nazis. After the Reichstag Fire in February 27 1933, Hindenburgs inability to lead the Weimar to the road of peace was proved as he was later agreeing to Hitlers demand of allowing him to use part of Article 48 which stripped people of their civil rights and allowed the police to make arrests without warrant, declaring a state of emergency. Hindenburg, though not fully trusting Hitler, nevertheless signed a Decree for the Protection of the People and the State taking away freedom of speech and assembly. His signature eventually undermined the Constitution and destroyed basic liberties. Hitler was able to take advantage of Hindenburgs senility and under Hindenburg, he and the Nazi Party could rise to full power.The unintentional methods of how Hindenburg undermined German democracy may vary. Among the few, two noteworthy reasons include Hindenburgs constant use of article 48 and his ineffective decision making skills which promoted Hitler as the chancello r of the Weimar Republic. However, it is inappropriate to hold him the most responsible character for the collapse of Weimar, for the constitutions downfall was due to numerous interwoven factors such as the instable social, economic and political aspects during the period 1929-33. Indeed, the tragic fate of German democracy cannot be attributed to any one major factor, because to single out any one factor ignores the complexity of the situation. Nonetheless the second president of the Weimar Republic, Paul Von Hindenburg, in spite of all the achievementshe had made in his early years, still remains to be regarded as an unimpressive leader who had given power to the brutal dictatorAdolf Hitler. The German democracy was thus doomed with his decision, for Hitler neither took nor gained power through elections, but was given power by Hindenburg, a man with growing senility and disinterest in politics.http//en.allexperts.com/e/p/pa/paul_von_hindenburg.htmA fib of the Twentieth Century, Martin Gilbert, p. 818A History of the Twentieth Century, Martin Gilbert, p. 818A History of the Twentieth Century, Martin Gilbert, p. 818A History of the Twentieth Century, Martin Gilbert, p. 819Germany A New History, Hagen Schulze, p. 243Exploring World History, John R. O Connor, p.556http//www.colby.edu/ private/r/rmscheck/GermanyD7.htmlhttp//www.colby.edu/personal/r/rmscheck/GermanyD7.htmlhttp//www.historylearningsite.co.uk/paul_von_hindenburg.htmhttp//www.studyzones.com/questionzone/detail.cfm?objectid=3F9B3DE7-8988-11D7-B24D00B0D049C8DF