четверг, 16 мая 2019 г.
Mengele Annotated Bibliography
This oblige goes into extreme detail describing every governancet of the Nazi regimes miscellaneous medical experiments, policies and atrocities with the intention of giving the referee an understanding of the past such that it should not repeat itself- as the author suggests it may in todays atmospheres of redbrick race murder and ethnic cleansing. Lifton crotchets comparisons particularly to potentially similar situations in Serbia, Rwanda and Cambodia, and draws parallels to the political and societal evolutions that took place in Germany, eventually developing a genocidal mentality that resulted in the governanceatic endowting to death of (and medical experimentation on) millions of barren victims.It smoothly describes the growth and development of the overall Nazi medical ideology, beginning with the definition of life miserable of life. Lifton explains the process by which mentally and physically disabled children and adults came to be regarded as detriments to soci ety that needed to be killed- both for their own good and for the betterment of mankind. This twisted view resulted in a state-sancti unmatchedd euthanasia program, wherein German doctors were first compelled to break their Hippocratic Oath- the professional promise to do no harm that is as anile as medicine itself.From its beginnings, Lifton further describes the progression of Nazi killings under the guise of science- culminating in the work of Dr. Josef Mengele in the concentration camp Auschwitz. Un uniform many studies of Mengeles work, Lifton does not focus simply on the horrors he perpetrated during his prison term at the camp. Rather, he attempts to explain how the camp culture within Auschwitz and the increasingly brutal practices of the Nazi system resulted in the atmosphere which allowed such horrible atrocities to occur.Koren, Y. (2005). Mengele and the Family of D strugglefs Yehuda Koren Tells One Familys Remarkable Story of Surviving Auschwitz. level Today, 55, 32-3 3.This expression examines another group of Mengeles victims, Jews suffering the inheritable disease of d fightfism. Specifically, an entire family, all of whom somehow managed to survive not only his experiments but the deadly atmosphere of Auschwitz itself.Koren provides first-person accounts via interviews of some members of the Ovitz family, a unique clan from Romania that arrived at Auschwitz in 1944. The family of twelve included seven d fightfs and was the largest recorded dwarf family in the world and onwards their transport to Auschwitz had worn- come in(a) years touring in a traveling exhibition that promoted them as the Lilliput Troupe. Mengele was extremely interested in genetic abnormalities, and as such targeted dwarfs and other unusual individuals for experimentation.Experiments conducted on the family included extensive drawing of blood, high doses of radiation, removal of blood marrow samples, teeth pulled and the women received mysterious injections into their wombs. Despite all of this horrid treatment, Mengele seemed to have a strange fondness for the family and often treated them to special meals and other privileges, so that he could use them as a source of entertainment for other SS officers. This makes their case extremely unique amongst all of his victims. So, while he avoided killing them, he did so for entirely selfish reasons.The case involving this particular family offers interesting insight into Mengeles personality.Freyhofer, H. (2004). The Nuremberg health check Trial The final solution and the Origin of the Nuremberg Medical Code. New York Peter Lang Publishing.This book examines and explains the Medical or Doctors struggle of Nuremberg, by recounting everything that led up to the trial, and the wide-ranging effects it had. Particular care is paid to analyzing the breaches in ethics by members of the medical community that chose to take part in the Nazi euthanasia programs and posterior medical experimentation on priso ners. These doctors, when charged with war crimes in the face of overwhelming evidence of what went on during the course of the war in hospitals and concentration camps, attempted to prove that the experiments they carried out were justifiable in the denote of science.Though Josef Mengele was on the run and in hiding at the time of the Trial and didnt face justice alongside his fellow perpetrators, Freyhofer goes into extensive detail analyzing Mengeles methods and potential motivations, as wholesome as the good implications of Mengeles work. Instead of focusing on the nature of the experiments performed by Mengele and other Nazi doctors, this text seeks to examine the bigger picture of medical responsibility.Freyhofer explains the nature of the Hippocratic oath and why it failed to endure the pressures brought upon it by Nazi ideology. match with this is a study of how the doctors charged in the trial, many of them highly respected in their fields before the war, could have so thoroughly warped their ethical viewpoints.The most significant contribution of this work is the chronicle of the Nuremberg Medical Code that resulted from the trial, in which the courts set a legal international standard for medical experimentation. As a result of this landmark decision, doctors could never again claim to have performed experimentation on loth subjects for the good of science.Riordan, C. (1997). The Sins of the Children Peter Schneider, Allan Massie and the Legacy of Auschwitz. Journal of European Studies, 27, 161-180.This article examines the repercussions that Nazi war crimes have had on the descendants of both the perpetrators and the victims. Countless sources recount the stories of Holocaust survivors and the stories of their children, but few examine the effects the war had on the equally innocent children of many top Nazis. These children grew up with the heart-breaking weight of their poses crimes, which in turn generated a degree of self-loathing.One par ticular figure of interest in this article is Rolf Mengele, the son of Dr. Josef Mengele. Mengele, having disappeared after the war into hiding in Brazil, lived out the rest of his days in relative peace and quiet, never contact retribution for his wonderful crimes. Six years after the death of his begetter, Rolf finally came forward and recounted his story of what it was like to have to live in obscurity under constant fear of discovery, and coping with the knowledge that his father never regretted any of his barbaric doings.The primary purpose behind analyzing the stories of the children of Nazi war criminals is to determine where historians draw the line between understanding and acceptance. To accomplish this, Riordan references two fictionalized accounts of these father-son relationships in order to gain insight into how the children of war criminals deal with the knowledge of their fathers actions, and what action (or lack thereof) they take to attempt to atone for those cr imes. Why, for example, did Rolf Mengele never turn his father in to the authorities? The motives are varied, and in the end its up to the individual to weigh perceived consignment to family, or loyalty to justice.Hinton, AL. (2002). Annihilating Difference The Anthropology of Genocide. Berkeley University of California Press.This book seeks to examine the larger picture of genocide and what drives humanity to single out and persecute specific groups of people within society. By studying various cases where genocide has occurred, such as the Holocaust, the author hopes to bring about an understanding of what creators these shameful events and how we might strain to prevent them in the future.Hinton states that genocide cannot occur without a basis of ideology that the perpetrators feel justifies their behavior. Clearly this makes the Holocaust a prime example, and Hinton places great emphasis on the supposed anthropological basis for many Nazi ideologies. Primarily amongst these are those regarding the Jews, who were defined by the Nazis as a lesser breed of humanity collectible to their stereotypical ethnic features, which differed in some ways from the ideal Aryan.This anthropological view that Jews were sub-human played a major role in Nazi justification of their treatment of the Jews, from basic imprisonment to systematic killing and use in ghastly medical experiments like those carried out by Josef Mengele.Hinton also discusses the psychological blocks put in place by the Nazis themselves in order to avoid full comprehension of their misdeeds. This included the stalk use of obscure terms and code words that were used in place of clear descriptions of the atrocities carried out on prisoners by Mengele and other Nazis. This suggests that even ideology couldnt fully convince even the Nazis that what they were doing was right, and subconciously they reverse for this by softening the appearance of their crimes, at least in writing.Baumel, JT. (2000). You Said the Words You Wanted Me to discover But I Heard The Words You Couldnt Bring Yourself To Say Womens First Person Accounts of the Holocaust. The Oral History Review. 27, 17-18.This article offers a unique view of some of Mengeles forgotten victims, the mothers of many of the children used in his experiments. Its well documented that Mengele was highly interested in performing experiments on twins, and he took great care to material body twin children out from the rest of the Jews brought to Auschwitz by train. Twins were often yanked from their mothers grasps and the mothers sent off to their deaths never sagacious what became of their children, while other times the mothers themselves were also involved in the experiments.This article examines both situations, with particular prudence paid to the later group- Mengele was interested in what caused the twin phenomenon, and did tests on the Jewish mothers of twins in hopes of discovering the cause of twin births. Other mothers were labored to take part in the tests conducted on their own children, sometimes forced to inject their children with unknown substances, many of which had terrible effects. This had an obvious severe psychological effect on these mothers, which Baumel explores in detail through first hand accounts.Other times, pregnant women were selected by Mengele for experimentation, such as one mother that had her newborn child taken from her and was forced to watch it starve to death as Mengele desire to determine how long a newborn could survive without its mother. Other pregnant women were experimented on, with injections and surgery. Through this and other terrible descriptions, Baumel illustrates not only the horrors of Mengeles experimentation, but also the terrible effect it had on the women they involved.