вторник, 26 марта 2019 г.

Hesiod’s Theogony :: Hesiod’s Theogony

Hesiods Theogony Hesiod writes his Theogony within the context of the nascent polis, which informs his conception of the Hellenic pantheon. The generations of gods that he portrays begin with the elements of personality and move steadily toward fully anthropomorphic figures, which represent elements corresponding to the carry out of the city-state. In Hesiods time, the polis was led by a king, or kings, and the chance of genus Zeus that Hesiod portrays serves as an example of royal dominion for them. Toward the end of the Theogony Zeus is urged by the other gods to be king, to rule the other immortals, and to follow the advice of Gaia. And so he apportions honors among them (881-5). Hesiod suggests that royal power results from the assent of the ruled, that it entails the right to rule, but that that rule must be tempered by recognition of the significance of nature, earth, which provides monastic orders livelihood. Zeus swallows the goddess Metis (890), just as a king must gain intelligence. Then he marries Themis, right, who bears good rule (Eunomia), justice (Dike) and calm (Eirene) (901-2), all necessary elements for a prosperous city-state. Eurynome (straight law) bears him the Graces (Charites), which are necessary elements for tidy sum and social interaction. Zeus marriages to Demeter, Leto and Hera yield the gods and goddeses familiar to the Greek world, Persephone, Apollo, Artemis, Hebe, Ares and Eileithyia, and he himself ultimately bears Athena (912-24). These are not elements of good rule, but simply the gods of the Greek polis. Demeter and Persephone are worshipped for agriculture, Apollo for his oracular shrine, Artemis for the wilderness and young women, Ares for war. Poseidon as ocean god is apart from the polis, but he sires the fearsome Triton (931). Likewise, Ares children Phobos and Deimos, two aspects of fear, delineate realms beyond the proper bounds of the polis. Maia bears for Zeus Hermes (938-9), who as herald of the gods moves between realms, between one polis and another. The story of succession that arrives at the rule of Zeus moves from the undifferentiated Sky (Ouranos), through Kronos to Zeus, who himself must apply the challenges of both Prometheus and Typhoeus.

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