суббота, 9 марта 2019 г.

Nervous System and Brain Stem

Biopsychology A specialty that studies the inter exploit of biology, deportment, and mental butt againstes. evolution The gradual process of biological change that occurs in a species as it adapts to its environment new generations change as they adapt to changing environments phylogenesis has fundament onlyy wrought psychological processes beca workout it favors genetic variations that score adaptive behavior Charles DarwinWonde rosy if animals were related and if all told creations, even homo, could sh be a common decline made the controversial case for the evolution of lifeNatural selectionThe driving jampack behind evolution, the fittest electric organisms be selected by the environment, the best adapted will pomposity and the least adapted will die out. Darwin n ever so said humans came from monkeys, but that they both had a common ancestor Genetics and he passingitary flesh Ge nonype Genetic MakeupPhenotype Physical and behavioral characteristics (observable chara cteristics) not all biological, similarly bathroom be changed by nutrition, disease, stress, and poor medical c atomic number 18 own birth defects Genome Set of genetic data contained within a jail stall DNAA complex molecule that stores biological information Genes The lyric that make up the instruction manual (genome) ChromosomesTightly coiled structures in which genes are organized, consist of DNA Nucleotides letters that form genes, in that location are 4Sex chromosomes The X and Y chromosomes that de full termine bodily hinge upon characteristics XX-fe young-begetting(prenominal) XY-male , fathers determine sex Genes solve our psychological characteristicsNever attribute psychological characteristics to genetics al angiotensin convinceing enzyme, even equal twins Race and human variations Certain features of skin color and an opposite(prenominal) physical characteristics are common among people who trace their ancestry to the real(prenominal) dissociate of the world tropical ancestry withstand darker skin to value them from the sun, and lighter skin for less sunny places There are no genetic differences for races, race is more of a socially defined term Pre engraftation Genetic Diagnosis Testing fetus at a very oung age to ensure a genetically healthy fetus both(prenominal) of these clinics overly offer g balanceer selection and savior siblings How does the dust exceed naturally?The dying(p) dodge reacts firstaccele crop your taket govern and tense your muscles for action Endocrine sy report sends fol low-spirited-up messagessend hormones which also accelerate h auriclet and tense muscles they lick together in trying and happier situations and even during low arousal states the disposition is the chief that manages the cooperation of the dying(p) and endocrinal systemsThe outlook coordinates the dusts 2 communication systems, the nervous and endocrinal, which habit similar chemic processes to communicate with target s throughout the body Neuron ( spirit cell) cell that receives and transmits information to other cells of the body, bundles are called nerves Sensory neuron (afferent neurons) A cell that carries messages towards the wiz from spirit receptors Motor neuron (efferent neurons) A cell that carries messages a style from the adept to the muscles and glandsInterneurons A cell that relays messages between nerve cells, specially in the wit and spinal cord Dendrites Branched fibers that ex hunt outward from the cell body and carries information into the neuron Soma part of the cell containing the nucleus or cell body, ho mappings chromosomes Axon An extending fiber that conducts information from the soma to the terminal buttons Resting violence The electrical charge of the axon in its inactive state, when neuron is make to return aliveAction potential When the neuron fires due to a change in electrical charge across the cell tissue layer of axon All or none principle action po tential in the axon occurs both completely or not at all when many an(prenominal) a(prenominal) neurons fire too easily the extend can buoy be epileptic seizure Synapsegap that serves as a communication speculation link between neurons or between neurons and muscles or glands they serve Terminal buttonsTiny bulb a ilk(p) structures at the end of the axon that carry the message into the synapse Synaptic transmittal The relaying of information across the synapse Neurotransmitter Chemical messenger that relays nervous messages across the synapse, many are also hormones ReuptakeThe process by which unused neurotransmitters are drawn back into the vesicles of their originating neuron 7 important neurotransmittersDopamineProduces effect of pleasure or reward, imbalances cause schizophrenia and Parkinson, cocaine, amphatamine, and alcohol displace the action of this transmitter SerotoninRegulates, log Zs, dreams, mood, pain, appetite, sex drive, imbalances cause depression, anxiety, OCD, Prozac and LSD happen upon the action of this transmitter Norepinnephrinecontrols heart rate, residuum, stress, sexual responsiveness, appetite, imbalances cause high breed pressure, depression, Tricyclic, anti depressants, and beta blockers view the action of this transmitter Acetycholine complicated in learning and retention, imbalances cause muscular throw out of kilters, alzheimers, nicotine, black widow spider venom, botulism toxin, barbiturates affect the action of this transmitterGABAInhibitory transmitter, inbalances cause anxiety and epilepsy, minor tranquilizers and alcohol affect the action of this transmitter GlutamateExcitatory transmitter, excess release of glutamate causes maven alter after stroke, PCP affects the action of this transmitter EndorphinsPleasurable aesthesiss and control of pain, imbalances bed from opiate addiction, opiates like morphine, heroin, and metha do effect the action of this transmitter Plasticity the nervous systems a bility to change or adapt as a result of an generate or physical constipation plasticity can not compensate for extensive injurys just as paralyzed individuals may implant computer chips in the wit to restore some forms of controlGlial cells A cell that provides structural support for neurons, also provide the myelin sheath of the axon for some neurons nervous system Ne dickensrk of neurons in the body, including the of import nervous system, peripheral nervous system, and their subdi good deals Central nervous system foreland and spinal cord Reflexsimple unlearned response triggered by stimuli done by spinal cord ContralateralEach side of the wittiness communicates with the opposite side of the body Peripheral Nervous systemConnects the central nervous system with the rest of the body (somatic and autonomic) Somatic nervous system Carries sensory information to the chief and voluntary messages to the musclesAutonomic nervous system Sends communications between the brain and t he internal organs and glands Sympathetic division ends messages to internal organs and glands that avail us respond to stressful or taking into custody situations Parasympathetic monitors the routine operations of the internal organs and returns body to calmer cognitive process after arousal by the sympathetic divisionThe endocrine system The hormone system, chemical messenger system including pituitary, thyroid, adrenals, pancreas, ovaries, and testes in a crisis this system releases epinephrine or adrenalin sustaining the bodies fight or flight reaction Hormones chemical messengers used by the endocrine system and the nervous systemHormonal functions of major endocrine glands Anterior pituitary body ovaries and testes, breast milk growthion, metabolism, reactions to stress Posterior pituitary conservation of water in the body, breast milk secretion, uterus contractions thyroid gland metabolism, physical growth and using Parathyroid calcium directs in the body Pancreas gl ucose (sugar) metabolismAdrenal glands fight or flight response, metabolism, sexual desire (especially in women) Ovaries development of female sexual characteristics, production of eggs or ova Testes development of male sexual characteristics, sperm production, sexual desire in men Pituitary gland the master gland that oversees all these endocrine responses Agonists drugs or other chemicals that put up or mimic the personal effects of neurotransmitters antagonists drugs or other chemicals that inhibit the effects of neurotransmittersNeural avenues bundles of nerve cells that follow generally the same route and employ the same neurotransmitter How does the brain produce behavior and mental processes? Thoughts and feelings originate from the brain (love doesnt come from the heart) brain is a collection of distinct modules that work together like the components of a computer the brain is composed of many vary modules that work together to urinate mind and behavior EEG(Electroenceph alograph)A device for preserve brain waves, typically by electrodes places on the scalp. The recording is an EEG evoke reveal abnormal waves which cause epilepsy not very preciseWilder Pen knowledge domain mapped the brain with electric probes which showed him that the brains sur depend had distinct areas with distinct functions Brain Scans help neurosurgeons to locate abnormalities such as tumors or stroke related damage without opening the skull CT(computerized tomography)uses x-rays taken of the brain at varied angles and then have into an image PET(positron emission tomography)Imaging proficiency that relies on the nameion of radioactive sugar consumed by active brain cellsMRI(magnetic plangency imaging) Imaging technique that relies on cells responses in a high-intensity magnetic field fMRI(functional magnetic resonance imaging)form of MRI that records brain structure and use PET and fMRI show which split of the brain are active during a special(a) task MRI ecvelsat distinguishing the fine details of brain structures non of these can detect processes that occur only briefly (shift in attention, startle response) no examine technique gives biopsychologists a perfectly clear view of all of the brains occupation Three layers of the brain Brain stem the nearly primitive of the brains triad major layers, involves medulla, pons, and reticular formation medullaControls breathing and heart ratePonsRegulates brain activity during residuum or dreaming Reticular formationkeeps the brain alert and attentive to new remark Limbic system warmheartedness layer, involved in e consummation and memory, includes thee hippocampus,amygdalaa, hypothalamus, and some pleasure centers HippocampusEstablishes coherent term memories amydalamemory and emotion, particularly fear and aggression HypothalamusBrains blood interrogation lab, constantly monitors blood to determine condition of the bodThalamus brains central relay station, all messages that enter or exit t he brain go through the thalamus controls intermission and awake states of disposition cerebrum cerebellumthe little brain attached to the brain stem, amenable for oordinated movements rational hemisphereslarge symmetrical halves of the brain located atop the brain stem rational mantleThin gray matter covering the cerebral hemispheres, carries on major portion of higher mental processes like estimate and perceiving corpus callosum the band of nerve cells connecting and enabling communication between the two cerebral hemispheresThe window dressing lobescortical regions at the front of the brain especially involved in movement and in thinking motor cerebral lens cortex A narrow vertical strip of cortex in the frontal lobes, controls voluntary motor movement Mirror neuronA year of neuron that fires in response to mirroring observation of another persons actions or emotions The remaining frontal lobes production of speechThe parietal lobesInvolved in touch sensation and pe rceiving spatial relationships Somatosensory cortex A strip of the parietal lobe involved in sensations of touch The temporal lobesCortical lobes that process hearing, including speech, involved in storing long term memories Occipital lobes The cortical regions that house the ocular cortex Visual cortex The visual processing area of cortex in the occipital and temporal lobes Association Cortex Critical regions throughout the brain that commix information from various other parts of the brainCerebral DominanceThe magnetic dip of each brain hemisphere to exert control over different functions, such as language or sensing of spatial relationships The left over(p) side is more active in language and speech the even up side is for visual and spatial and interprets others emotional responses and their nonverbal communication signals the remediate frontal lobes control the disallow emotions such as fear and wrath the left frontal lobes control the positive emotions such as mirth cerebral dominance patterns are not always the same from one person to another men on average have jolly larger brains, thought to be part of body size and not very much other importance CH 3Sensation The process by which stimulation of a sensory receptor produces neuronic impulses that the brain interprets as a phonate, sight, taste, touch, or smell Perception A mental process that elaborates and assigns means to the unveiling sensory patterns The brain senses the world indirectly because the sense organs convert stimulation into the language of the nervous system ( queasy messages) 3 attributes common to all senses transduction-process that converts information carried by the stimulus , such as light or sound waves, into the form of neural messages sensory adaption-loss of responsiveness in receptor cells after stimulation has remained unchanged for a speckle thresholds bsolute threshold-minimum amount of physical energy needed to produce a sensory experience (how velvet can music be and still be heard) if it is above your thresholds, you sense it varies from person to person and varies in an individual depending on mental alerting and physical condition difference threshold (JND)-minimum amount by which a stimulus can be changed and the difference be detected half the time large when the stimulus intensity is high and small when low Webers law The size of the JND is proportional to the intensity of the stimulus We are built to detect changes in stimulation and relationships among stimuli Signal detection guess Theory that states that sensation depends on the characteristics of the stimulus, the background stimulation, and the detector.Sensory Adaptation Loss of responsiveness in receptor cells after stimulation has remained unchanged for a while (adjusting to the temperature of a cold pool) The sense all operate in much the same way, but each extracts different information and sends it to its own specialized processing region in the brain Vision RetinaThe thin handsome layer at the back of the midriffball. The retina contains millions of photoreceptor and other nerve cells the retina is where the transduction of light into neural signals occurs Photoreceptors Light sensitive cells (neurons) in the retina that concert light energy to neural impulses, these receptors are as far as light gets into the visual system. Rods Photoreceptors in the retina sensitive to dark lighting but not to colorCones photoreceptor in the retina sensitive to colors but not dim light Fovea-tiny area of sharpest vision in the retina ipolar cells-collect impulses from photoreceptors and send them to the ganglion cells optic nerve-the bundle of neurons that caries visual information from the retina to the brain blind spot- the point where the optic nerve exits the eye and in that respect are no photoreceptors, anything in this area cannot be seen visual cortex creates visual images from the information received from the eye in this cortex, brain t urns neural impulses into visual sensations of color, form, boundary, and movement brightness- A sensation caused by intensity(amplitude) of light waves color-(hue) not a property of things in the immaterial world , a psychological sensation created in the brain from information from the eyes from the wavelength of visual lightElectromagnetic spectrum-the unblemished range of electromagnetic energy, including radio waves, x rays, microwaves, and distinct light visible spectrum-the tiny part of electromagnetic spectrum to which our eyes are sensitive, may be different from our own trichromatic theory-the idea that colors are comprehend by three different types of cones sensitive to light in the red blue and green wavelengths, this theory explains color processing in the cones of the retina opponent-process theory-the idea that cells in the visual system process colors in completing pairs, such as red or green , yellow or blue, this theory explains color sensation from the bipola r cells onward in the visual system afterimages-sensations that linger after the stimulus is removed, most are negative after images, which appear in reversed colors color blindness-genetic disorder that prevents an individual from discriminating certain colors, most common form is red green color blindnessHearing Frequency-highness or lowness of sound, pitch amplitude-the physical strength of a wave. Height of the wave , when turning cut down vol, your turning down amplitude, loudness timbre-complex quality of a sound wave, helps you distinguish different voices how we hear sound waves are relayed to the inner ear, vibrating waves make their way through the ear canal to the ear drum or tympanic membrane, vibrates middle ear, sends to cochlea cochlea-main organ of hearing focuses he vibrations on the basilar membrane basilar membrane converts vibrations into neural messages neural messages travel to the auditory cortex in the brain Hearing loss-from damage of the pilus cells in th e cochlea Vision-stimulus is light waves, receptor is rods and conesHearing-stimulus is sound waves, receptor is hair cells in basilar membrane Skin senses-stimulus is external contact, receptor is nerve endings in skin Smell-stimulus is volatile substances, receptor is hair cells in olfactory epithelium Taste-stimulus is soluble substances, receptor is taste buds on tongue Pain- stimulus is extreme stimuli, receptors are pain receptors Kinesthatic and vestibular senses-stimulus is body position, movement and balance, receptors are hair cells in semicircular canals and neurons connected to muscles joints and tendons vestibular senses-the sense of body orientation with respect to gravity, associated with inner ear and in fact is carried to the brain on a Branch of the auditory nerve Kinesthetic sense-the sense of body position and movement of body parts relative to each otherSmell olfaction-sense of smell pheromones-chemical signals released by organisms to communicate with other mem bers of their species. oftentimes used by animals as sexual attractants, unclear if humans use them Taste Gustation-the sense of tasteSkin senses sensory system for processing touch, warmth, cold, texture, and pain synesthesia-the flux of sensations across sensory modalities, as in tasting shapes or visual scholarship colors associated with numbers Phantom limbs-sensations experienced by people who have lost a limb coming from the missing body part Gate control theory-an explanation for pain control that proposes we have a neural gate that can, under some circumstances, block incoming pain signals if you experience pain you can take drugs like aspirin or you can get morphine which suppresses the pain messages in the spinal cord placebo-appears to be a drug, but is not (sugar pill) placebo effect-a response to a placebo caused by the smell that it is a real drug Perception gives meaning to sensation, so perception produces an interpretation of the world, not a perfect representat ion of itPercept The meaning product of perception, often an image that has been associated with concepts, memories of events, emotions, and motives What pathway-A neural pathway, projecting from the primary visual cortex to the temporal lobe, which involves identifying objects where pathway-A neural pathway the projects visual information to the parietal lobe, responsible for locating objects in space blindsight-being conscious of information in the what pathway but not necessarily in the where pathway feature detectors-cells in the cortex that specialize in extracting certain features of a stimulus cover song problemhow the brain combines the results from many senses into a single percept top-down process memories and past experiences in our brain tell perception toilet up process the sensed characteristics in the stimuli exert strong influence on our perceptions perceptual constancy-the ability to recognize the same object as remaining constant under different conditions, such as distance or location inattentional blindness-a failure to notice changes occurring in ones visual field, caused by tapered the focus of ones attention change blindness-failure to notice that a visual eyeshot has changed from the way it had appeared previously, requires comparing a scene to one from the past illusion-incorrect perception of a stimulus pattern especially one that fools others ambiguous figures-images that can be interpreted in more than one way.No right way to see an ambiguous figure Gestalt psychology believed that much of perception is shaped by innate factors built into the brain figure- a part of a pattern that stands out against the ground ground-part of a pattern that does not statement attention-background closure-gestalt principle that identifies the tendency to fill in gaps in figures and to see partial figures as complete Laws of perceptual convocationing-the gestalt principles of similarity, proximity, continuity, and common fate.Suggest how our bra ins opt to group stimulus elements together to form a percept Law of similarity-gestalt principle, we tend to group similar objects together in out perceptions Law of proximity-gestalt principle, we tend to group objects together when they are near each other Law of continuity-gestalt principle, we prefer perceptions of connected and continuous figures to disconnected and disjointed ones Law of common fate-gestalt principle, we tend to group similar objects together that share a common motion of destination Law ofPragnanz- Gestalt principle, the simplest organization, requiring the least cognitive effect, will emerge as a figure, full figures such as a unlikable rung Learning based inference- the view that perception is primarily shaped by learning rather by innate factors perceptual set-readiness to detect a particular stimulus in a given context psyche afraid interprets an unfamiliar sound as a threat, set of vocalizes, word missing binocular cues-information taken in by bot h eyes that aids in depth perception, including binocular convergence and retinal dissimilarity Monocular cues-information about depth that relies on the input of just one eye and includes relative size, light and shadow, relative motion and atmospheric pressure CH 8Cognitive Neuroscience-An interdisciplinary field involving cognitive psychology, neurology, biology, computer science, linguistics, and other specialists who are interested in the connection between mental processes and the brain Nonconscious process-Any brain process that does not involve conscious processing, including both preconscious memories and unconscious mind processes can transact many jobs at the same time (walk, chew gum, breath) Consciousness-The process by which the brain creates mental model of our experience, most common mind occurs during wakefulness, although there can be altered states Attention- a process by which disposition focuses on a single item of chunk in working memory Tools for studying consciousness- fMRI, EEG, PET Freuds levels of consciousnessPreconscious- A special unconscious memory for information no currently in conscious but promptly available to the conscious (like your phone number) The unconscious-A part of the mind that processes below the level or sensation, emotional memories, desires, and feelings that would be threatening if brought back to consciousness crowd together stream of consciousness-walking consciousness is like a flowing stream carrying ever changing sensations, perceptions, thoughts, memories, feelings, and desires, this stream includes sentiency of ourselves and of stimulation from our environment, can also include physical sensations from within like hunger or pain mob said consciousness has 2 levels an area of focus for what we are pore our attention on, and a peripheral conscious to encompass the feelings that give meaning to our focus The computer metaphor-likens consciousness to the information and images that appear on a c omputer screen nonconscious is the electronic activity behind the scene, which most of the time operates in parallel with consciousness Three important functions of the consciousnessConsciousness restricts our attention-(restriction) because it processes information serially, it limits what you notice and think about,keeps your brain from being overwhelmed by stimulation cannot read while listening to music consciousness provides a mental meeting place-(combination) meeting place where sensation can combine with memory, emotions, motives, and a host of other psychological processes (perception) consciousness allows us to create a mental model of the world-(manipulation) a model we can ready in our minds, we dont just operate in the moment, we make a model that draws on memory and brings the past and the future into awareness.Coma-An unconscious state, during which a person lacks the normal cycles of sleep and wakefulness, usually only lasts a few days (between vegetative and minim ally conscious states) Consciousness fluctuates in cycles that correspond to our biological rhythms and to patterns of stimulation in our environmental Daydreaming-A common (and preferably normal) variation of consciousness in which attention shifts to memories, expectations, desires, or fantasies and away from the contiguous situation daydreaming is automatic when we are in a slumberous state or not focused on something Circadian Rhythms-A pattern that repeats every 24 hours such as sleep and wakefulness cycle, kB lag Main Events of sleep REM sleep- ramification that occurs approximately every 90 minutes, marked by bursts of quick eye movement occurring under closed eye lids each REM period gets longer and longer Non-REM-the happen periods, mainly associated with the deeper state of sleep, when a link is not showing rapid eye movements Sleep paralysis- A condition in which a wagon-lit is unable to move any of the voluntary muscles except the eyes (normally occurs during REM ) Stages of sleep Stage 1Slower theta waves, faster beta wavesStage 2 neat burst of fast electrical activity that reliably signal the end of stage 1 Stage 3 &4heart rate and breathing slow down , beta brain waves slow, delta waves appear DEEPEST sleep in stage 4 as stage 4 ends sleeper climbs back up the stages backwards REM sleep fast beta waves, rapid eye movement, after REM sleeper slips back into stage 2 REM rebound- A condition of increased REM sleep caused by REM sleep deprivation Sleep debt-A sleep wishing caused by not getting the amount of sleep required for best functioning Isrealites interpreted dreams as messages from the gods Egyptians tried to influence dreams by sleeping in temples dedicated to the god of dreaming Chinese are panic-struck to dream because they think the soul wanders outside the body Freuds theory of dreams manifest content-the story line of a dream, taken at face value without interpretation latent content- the symbolic meaning or objects and even ts in a dream Activation synthesis theory- the theory that dreams begin with haphazard electrical activation coming from the brain stem.The storyline of dreams are the brains commence to make sense of this random activity Insomnia- involving insufficient sleep, the inability to accrue asleep quickly, frequent arousals, or early awakenings Sleep Apnea- A respiratory disorder in which the person intermittently stops breathing many times while asleep Night terrors-deep sleep episodes that seem to produce terror, what made the person scared is usually forgotten on awakening, usually found in children narcolepsy-a disorder of REM sleep, involving sleep-onset periods in sudden solar day REM-sleep attacks An altered state of consciousness occurs when some aspect of normal consciousness is modified by mental, behavioral, or chemical means Hypnosis-A state of awareness characterized by deep relaxation, heightened suggestibility, and focused attention Hypnotizability- susceptibility measu red by a persons responsiveness to standardized suggestions hypnosis an be used for dental and medical uses, psychological treatmentMeditation-A state of consciousness often induces by focusing on a repetitive behavior, assuming certain body positions, and minimizing external stimulation Psychoactive drug-chemical that affects mental processes and behavior by its effect on the brain Hallucinogen-a drug that creates hallucinations or alters perception of the external environment and inner awareness Opiates-Highly addictive drug, derived from opium, that can produce a profound sense of exchange being and has strong pain relieving properties Depressant-drug that slows down mental and physical activity by inhibiting transmission of nerve impulses in the brain (alcohol, barbiturates) Stimulants-speed up brain and mental and physical responses (cocain, amphetamine, nicotine, caffeine)General Anesthetic-substance that suppresses consciousness and awareness of pain, some produce drugging a nd immobility Tolerance-the reduces effectiveness a drug has after repeated use psychical dependance-the body adjusts to and comes to need and drug for every day functioning addiction- a person continues to use a drug despite its inauspicious effects and many attempts to stop withdrawal-A pattern of uncomfortable or pestiferous physical symptoms and cravings experienced by the user when the level of drug is decrease or the drug is eliminated psychological dependency-a desire to obtain or use a drug, even though there is no physical dependence

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