вторник, 19 февраля 2019 г.
Commonalities and Divergences Essay
The dichotomy of Eastern and Hesperian in terms of global geography is something that has been examined on many levels, as the flori tillage of the two hemispheres contrast in a truly blatant manner. political theory a bust social interactions to the value of education, food, music, art, religion, etc. all play a key role in what makes each culture so uncommon and gives the people of each argona a strong sense of a global, national, and, on a micro level, personal identity.The ethos of Japan, in particular Heian layover Japan (which lasted from 794 to 1185), is perceptibly different from modern era westbound civilization non only because of location but due to a coarse lapse in time. This is not to say, however, that these cultures are so isolated from unitary another that there is no common ground or convergence between the mentalities. In spite of such glaring dissimilarities, it is possible to arise parallels in the attitude between the characters in Murasaki Shikibu s 11th vitamin C novel, The Tale of Genji, and people today.First and foremost, there needs to be a direct definition and establishment of what comprises an aesthetic. Aesthetics, as defined by the American Heritage dictionary, is the branch of philosophy that deals with the nature and expression of beauty, primarily but not solely within the arts (14). It is important to clarify that while a picture could be said to have an aesthetic appeal or a song is aesthetically pleasing to the ears, the concept of aesthetics is not scoopful to the art realm.In this context, it is also a core value that an inherent society upholds as sensible and proper, which can range from the general to the circumstantially specific. More often than not, it is a concept that is ingrained into a culture from birth and propagated with each generation when asked to depict why these rules of society are in place, the most common answer would probably be, that is merely the fashion it is, with little to no further countersign.If unmatchable were to go against these aesthetics, he/she would be in jeopardy of becoming a social pariah, depending on the inflexibleness to which a culture sustains its view. With the definition of what an aesthetic is in mind, there should be a clear distinction between Heian-era Japanese and modern Western aesthetics. One of two Western aesthetics that are germane to this discussion is a heightened level of openness and candor in all forms of media and discourse. A strong personal voice is encouraged, especially in America, which is based on democracy.The claim to fame for Western musicians, filmmakers, and authors lies in their lack of censorship and ability to plug in with peoples emotions on a very primal level. null is held back, no matter how psychologically taxing the material may be the aim of their art is catharsis. Another important component of Western aestheticism is a general embrace of human sexuality and its various forms of expression. The most broad difference in how the West handles sexuality can be seen in todays hook-up culture, where onetime sexual encounters with several partners over a span of time is commonplace.Going against the tradition of abstinence until marriage (which is an equally common phenomenon), the modern approach to sexuality actively shifts the focus from the stirred to the physical, forgoing personal, monogamous relationships for instant gratification. The media is a very large admirer of this movement, in addition to introducing sex to junior and younger generations. The approach of promoting younger girls to get in touch with their sexuality besides early fastened with the age-old practice of female objectification has partially contributed to the cultural deterioration of the West.A thousand years earlier and on the other side of the world, however, the Japanese embraced four major aesthetic elements, two of which are mono no certified and miyabi. The first of the two, mono no assured, is a cultivated susceptibility to the transient nature of the world (Ikegami, Class notes). Mono no aware can be found primarily in the early Heian poetry, which was compiled in the Manyoshu and Kokinshu, two well-known collections. Cherry blossoms are often associated with the view of mono no aware, as exemplified in this excerpt from the Kokinshu For cherry blossomsTo be descending resembling snow is sorrow enough How do the blowing breezes offer that they should scatter? (110) The sadness at the scattering of the cherry blossoms and the ultimate science that it is all part of natures design is a key component in mono no aware the cherry blossoms, like most flowers, do not stay in bloom for good and die in accordance with the seasons. This aesthetic is, in essence, the ability to hold dear the artistic merit in this death and see that it is, in itself, beautiful.It is very unlike Western culture as mono no aware requires a keen understanding for subtlety and an ap preciation for seemingly inconsequential matters, like blossoms blowing in the breeze. Miyabi, the minute relevant Japanese aesthetic, roughly translates to polished elegance, which entails personal refinement, restraint, and indirectness (Ikegami, Class notes). Contrary to the Western aesthetic of frankness, the Japanese actively follow the method of bottling up their emotions and metaphorically wearing a inter around the public that might not reflect how they actually pure tone inside.On some levels, one could equate miyabi with E. B. Du Bois theory of the double awareness, which was developed in the late early 20th century to describe the inner struggle of African- Americans during the period of inequality and segregation just as the blacks had to present themselves differently around whites in order to survive, the Japanese break dealing with interpersonal conflict in order to maintain a surface level of peace and harmony within the community (McWhorter).through and throu gh the lens of these four aesthetics, one can notice some circle within the opening five chapters of Murasaki Shikibus The Tale of Genji. In the second chapter, The Broom Tree, Genji and several friends are shut-in during a bout of bad weather and the conversation eventually turns to the subject of women. The men father listing off their likes and dislikes, not straying far from the superficial. At one point, the 11th century courtiers make a statement that mirrors a Western ideal about women that, while now antiquated and offensive, is still propagated.In gross objectification, Genji and his men proclaim that, a wifes main duty is to look after her husband (Tyler 25). The men further exteriorise women, talking about them like theyre moldable clay on a pottery wheel that they can knead to their liking a womanhood, for example, must be seen, not heard but not too passive as to never stick up for herself. A woman must be dutiful in the house but not work too hard as to let her loo ks go. She cant be too intelligent. She has to always smell nice. The list goes on just like modern man, Genji and his friends describe women that could not possibly exist.