суббота, 23 февраля 2019 г.
Psychological Testing Essay
The Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children measures simultaneous and sequential processing clevernesss as easy as subscales that measure academic achievement. The age range this establish investigates is ages 2-12 long time. There argon ten mental processing sub examines as healthful as six achievement sub sees. Only three of the sub establishs atomic number 18 get byed to every(prenominal) ages groups, making the sub- interrogation age- peculiar(prenominal). The older the baby in question, the continuing the tests provide take. The sequential processing scale measures short term memory and problem puzzle out is organized around sequences.The simultaneous scale measures several problems that need to be solved at the homogeneous time. Achievement scales measure applied skills of the individual. b) acquaintance in children of preschool age is very unst suit up to(p) whereas their wisdom activity begins to stabilize as they r for each one school age. The assessment too ls for infants argon different to school-going children in the sentience that they measure aimment rather than academic foundations. These tests measure how quickly the child is developing in terms of motor skills, linguistic development, adaptive expression and social interaction.It has to be given that school-aged children realise a higher lexicon and language skill that stand be better tested than the infant who is still using monosyllabic noises rather than intelligences. Motor skills besides develop more(prenominal) rapidly as well as ratiocination skills. c) cordial age does not refer to the actual age of the some cardinal in question. A soulfulness with a mental age of 5 years whitethorn actually l whiz(prenominal) be 4 years chronologically and vice versa. Due to this anomaly, info derived from IQ testing does not attach to a bell-curve on data sheets. The recreation IQ is implemented to silver-tongued out inconsistencies.Instead of actual suckers, the s omeone is allocated a percentile score so that it corporation be rigid more realistically on a normal curve chart. Mental age does not necessarily increase over time in the same mode that chronological age does and this age difference gradually decreases around adolescence. For these reasons a deviation IQ is utilize as opposed to actual raw scores. d) originally named the Binet-Simon test, the runninging underwent several revisions over time with the about signifi ratt convince macrocosm that it included the first Intelligence Quotient after 1916 when it became the Stanford-Binet test.The Binet-Simon test was ab initio used to determine the intelligence of retarded children, came to the conclusion that rather than psycheation a chronological age, the children displayed a mental age instead. The 1986 version of the test include a wider perimeter example group in rescript to decrease inequities that occurred in race and gender previously. It had been engineered for chi ldren alone but in 2003 was amended to befit adults as well. Design changes were made similarly to accommodate and measure demeanour at age levels.e) Fluid and crystallize intelligence some(prenominal) form actuate of full general intelligence. Fluid intelligence relates to reason out and problem solving and is largely thought of as creation unconditional of knowledge or experience. It is and then an inherent or instinctual intelligence. Crystallized intelligence on the different hand refers to the intelligence that you gain from experience and what you work learnt in life. This intelligence is something that increases with age due to experiences and the assimilation of knowledge through with(predicate) what we cast learned.Fluid intelligence in that locationfore decreases with age and peaks during adolescence while crystallized intelligence will continue to grow. f) The general intelligence factor (g-factor) is meant to be a measurement of the soulfulnesss boile rs suit intelligence. The two-factor theory was initiated by Spearman who derived a g-factor from two functions a generalized qualification and a specific ability. Therefore consort to Spearman a persons intelligence could be determined by a general intelligence as well as a specific intelligence (s-factor). Multi-factor intelligence theories implement the individual ability to be intelligent in various fields.Thurstone found that there were multiple argonas in which a person could display intelligence and derived 7 factors that he called primal abilities intelligence agency fluency, verbal comprehension, spatial concept, numerical facilitation, memory by association, reasoning and perceptual speed. g) Individual tests pack one-one-one consultation and measure verbal and non-verbal abilities. The Stanford-Binet and the Wechsler tests two pick up this environment. Group tests atomic number 18 most a lot administered to large groups and do no require one-on-one consultation . These tests be most often adroitness tests or cognitive abilities.Scoring in these terms is most often more object than in individual tests and also simplify the fictional character of the coordinator. Group testing is not finis-specific as opposed to individual testing which can be more culturally loaded and also more subjective. It is not as easy to establish a relationship with the person in a group testing environment as it is when the person is tested individually. h) Army alpha and beta tests were prototypes initially used in group testing to place soldiers during the First World War. Alpha groups were those who were serious in the English language.Those who were not initially considered alpha groups were those who were placed in beta groups who were intelligent but not native English speakers. This assumption was that peoples intelligence was inherited. This method was first used to call where in the army the person was likely to be placed, given their responses to the tests and the results. The beta test decreased its use of verbal knowledge presumably because they are non-English and it used mainly pictographic references. i) Aptitude and achievement tests are both standardize. Aptitude testing assesses the ability of the person to learn in true areas.These tests are developed in order to determine which field of increase the person is most likely to excel in. These also measure numerical and literal ability as well as mechanical and bring up reasoning. Achievement tests on the separate hand measure how well a person has achieved a skill. It is mostly used to ascertain academic levels and therefore is useful in determining whether a person is inherently able to learn something or not. An aptitude test will be able to validate that a person is most likely to achieve exceedingly in a certain area and not as highly in others.j) The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children is an individual test that does not require reading or writing . It measures verbal intelligence and response times which can be useful in the diagnosis of Attention Deficits or other such disorders/ perverted patterns. This form of testing is significant in that it supplies the coordinator with randomness as to how fast the child can assimilate and react to questions. It also ascertains the quality and efficiency of vocabulary as well as word processing. The test is significant also in that t determines the responsives concentration levels and possible problems in their attention span.This is useful in that answers require verbal reactions. k) Physical stultification does not necessarily mean that there will be discrepancies in the IQ of the person. Testing a person who is deaf for instance, requires a different approach to testing as well as a different means for the test. These individuals need a non-verbal found test and verbal ability is therefore a non-entity in their testing. A blind person on the other hand will not benefit from spa tially based tests or units that require sight. The tests used to site IQ would have to be verbally based and not pictorial.This considered, a speech impaired individual will also not have the same verbal component as someone who is able to speak. However, this does not mean that a mute person is not able to rede verbal interjection. For this reason, the IQ test has to be tailored to the specific disability reflected by the individual. l) Certain finishs encourage some skills more than they do others. The culture honest test is non-verbal and does not therefore test linguistic reason insomuch as if the person tested is not an English speaker, they cannot be expected to understand English word and sentence structure.The culture fair test therefore measures analytical and reasoning ability and makes use of crochet and unusual visual spatial pictographs. From this the spatial and pictorial re manifestations are believed to be worldwide to all cultures and thus understood well fr om one culture to the next. It was initially meant to reduce cultural or ethnic turn that can be produced when a test is designed to be effect for a certain culture. It is also independent of educational foundations and therefore measures inherent skill rather than acquired skills.2 a) Personality testing identifies certain traits inherently part of an individuals psychological make-up. These tests basically do you determine what spirit attributes you have and therefore help to identify what career types may be more pertinent to whom. Aspects of the personality often denote what particular attributes the personality has and thus what lifestyle s better desirable to whom. Jung and Myers-Briggs typology identify different personality types that are said to help the individual determine their best career path. The ability test measures a persons ability to learn sassy skills and also their potential in certain fields.Ability tests also hear to ascertain what the person has lea rnt or assimilated in terms of whatever they are studying, for example, school tests. b) Personality traits are characteristics of the individual and certain personality qualities that are inherent to the person. There are theories that propose that all traits are fall in in all people but to varying degrees (lesser or more). idiographic personality trait view maintains that each person has a unmatched psychological structure that is not shared by anyone else. For this reason, it is impossible to comparability any two people.The nomothetic view however, sees people as comical in their combination of traits. This means that while they do share personality traits to various degrees this can be compared by degrees of each trait in comparable people. c) Items are chosen depending on the specific group that is being studied. For example, screening of normal behavior in police officer applicants will be given items that pertain to the criminal justice system. The group is bout into t wo one group is what the coordinator would think of as displaying abnormal reactions/behavior and the other would be normal.Items are distributed equally in both groups and reactions towards the stimuli are recorded. The empirical criterion key does not assume that respondents are able to observe their own behavior but rather sees the objects or items as stimuli that require a response. Those they believe to be normal are used as a scale by which abnormal behavior can be compared. d) Forced-choice format gives a more well-rounded result then standard testing. The forced choice format basically allows the respondent one of two statements that they most likely agree with.The advantage of this is that it not only gives an accurate representation of reality, but it prevents the choice from becoming monotonous. It is easier to score these kinds of questions than if the respondent was asked multiple choice questions. As a design this format prevents the respondent from being consciously manipulated and therefore makes sure that the answers are truthful. This form of questionnaire is also shorter, preventing the individual from becoming tired and losing focus on the questions that are being asked.This prevents answers from becoming distorted. e) Response sets or response style refers to the persons propensity to answer the same response for all or most of the questions. For instance, if the person responded yes to the above question and then yes again, regardless of the record of the question. This is jetly counterbalanced in tests because there are times when the person is sloping towards a certain question based on its contents. Counterbalancing this response requires the same question to be asked in a different way and later(prenominal) in the questionnaire.This situation of response bias is also termed acquiescence as the person performs this unconsciously or with lose of interest in the nature of the questions. f) Factor analysis is used to describe varia bles in a investigate situation. For instance, we have a research questionnaire that we now have to translate into data specific terms. We have the variables that were studied and the scores for each variable. In psychometric intelligence testing we could have any number of variables that determine the overall factor.An example of this would be that while we are aware that there are multiple factors within the intelligence study, all these factors contribute to the g-factor or general intelligence factor. In this case g is the only factor that is common in all persons. What this analysis does is ascertain what particular factors which people are most affiliated with. Basically we could determine which factor is specific to which person. g) mark self reporting methods of personality assessment is based on standardized questionnaires with limited responses available as well as a hardened scoring system.It is based on nomothetic principles and is therefore less ambiguous then the l iberal methods. Progressive personality assessment techniques use intuitive responses and the intuitive scoring is also use. This personality assessment is based on idiographic principles which make it entirely different to the objective method. The problem with progressive techniques is that there is no fixed scoring system, however the problem with the objective method is that it does not leave room for intuitive or interpretive responses which are natural human conditions.h) Word association tests require the coordinator to present the group or person with a word. The person responds to this with the first word that comes to mind. This is a free association and therefore does not give the person the chance to think about their answer. A table measures the test word, the response time and the response. Responses to the words can be either the opposite in meaning an association with the word (green-yellow) or even a classic answer. The basis of this test is that it provides a pat tern of how the individual sees words and how they comrade with things.The association of about 100 words will give the coordinator a pattern of response that can be determined as normal, abnormal or as an anomaly. Most people will have a set pattern of responses. i) The interaction between a need and a press is called a thema. There is a need that is ensued by a press. To simplify this, Murray identified 28 demand and forces that press them into fruition. This makes the relationship interactional and determined by this interaction is the thema. The thema therefore can be conjugate to other units of these interactions to form serial thema.The greatest portion of the persons thema is dependent on the amount of press and needs that are present in that specific thema. This theory is used to determine personality types that are identified by specific needs and forces of press. Murray conducted this typology on Adolf Hitler in order to ascertain the needs and forces that culminated in his erratic behavior. j) Interest inventories conduct in-depth investigation into a persons likes and dislikes and this helps to determine what type of career path is best suited to the individual.Clearly you should not study or undertake careers in which you would have to partake in activities you intensely dislike. Neither would it be advisable to bring involved in vocations that you are indifferent to. The key would be to extend involved in a career that contains more of your inventories likes than dislikes. These interest inventories help you to discover what it is exactly that you like or dislike. This particular form of schedule is highly related to personality in the sense that certain personalities are more likely to enjoy certain key activities.An example of this would be an artist or writer enjoying solitude in a way that an actor might not. 3 b) Test name Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale. Test uses The Stanford Binet was initially indicated for the correct placement of children in educational settings. It is now one of the most widely used intelligence tests. It is useful for determining cognitive skills and intelligence in children and adults. Population test was designed for As already stated, it was designed for children in educational settings in order to ensure that they were placed in the right class environment.Administration of test The time it takes to administer this test depends on the age of the respondent and how many subtests are administered. It may take from 45-90 transactions standard but may take longer depending on the conditions at the time and the variables concerned. The respondent is timed at each subtest and is determined by estimated entry level. Timing is approximately 5 minutes per test. Depending on the age, the articles measured include fluid reasoning, knowledge, quantitative reasoning, visual-spatial processing and workings memory.Characteristics of normative savors The Stanford Binet normative sample reflect t he 2000 U. S census and bias reviews are conducted on race, ethnicity, gender, religion and socio-economic status. Because it is a standardized test, normative or mean scores are derived per age group and the representative sample is matched to the individual standing. It was standardized on a national representative sample of 5 000 subjects. Reliability information Reliability in this test is considered high. The home(a) median consistency score was . 97.Subtest reliabilities differ from age-group to age-group. Reliability coefficients ranged from . 91 to . 98, with coefficients for the fiver factor indices ranging from . 90 to . 92. Subtest coefficients ranged from . 84 to . 89. Validity information correlations in the rigorousness were considered high with an approximate value of . 90 compared to earlier Stanford Binet editions and high compared to other tests. Strengths of the test This test can assist in the diagnosis of learning disabilities as well as determine the level o f competency for upstart children compared to a normative structure.It can be used to determine developmental stages and knowledge and can be used in all age-groups from pre-school to adults. Weaknesses of the test Due to the lack of co-operation sometimes shown in very young preschoolers the test results may not be indicative of true ability because of their lack of interest in partaking in the study. Different age-groups are administered different subtests which may also be considered a criticism in terms of its universal application.